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Glossary and Commonly used Abbreviations

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AHWMP - Animal Health and Welfare Management Programme
Ancient Wood Pasture - Grassland or Heathland with scattered tress which has been grazed by generations of livestock. Can include parklands, designed landscapes.
Arable - Land used for growing crops, can be used for the crop itself, e.g. an arable crop
Away-wintering - Removal of an agreed number of sheep off moorland for winter grazing on lowland pasture to benefit the condition of the moorland

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BACS - Bankers Automated Clearing System. It is used by the Scottish Government for all payments to scheme participants
BAP - Biodiversity Action Plan - The UK Government's response to the Convention on Biological Diversity signed in 1992. Has detailed action plans for species diversity and habitats.
BASC - British Association for Shooting and Conservation
Beating up - Replacement of hedge or tree plants which haven't established,
BEP - Bracken Eradication Plan/Programme
Blanket bog - An extensive moorland habitat characterised by a deep peat soil, a shallow water table, and vegetation dominated by variable amounts of heather, cotton grass, deer serge, putple moor grass and a variety of bog mosses.
BRN - Business Reference Number - Unique business identification number which links claims made to the business making them. Required for all businesses receiving money from the Scottish Government payment system
BTCV - British Trust for Conservation Volunteers
Buffer areas - A strip separating different types of land, habitat or ecosystem. They can be grassland, woodland, wetland or even non-vegetative. See also Riparian. Under SRDP the definition of a buffer area has set parameters, this doesn't mean those as it's a general description

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CAP - Common Agricultural Policy
Capital Works - The infrastructure required to comply with land management prescriptions, e.g. fences, styles, water troughs or gates.
CC - Crofters Commission
CCAGS - Crofting Counties Agricultural Grant Scheme
Coppicing - Practice of cutting stems of hedge or tree plants to encourage multi stem re-growth. Also carried out as a harvesting method for small timber biomass woodfuel on a rotation
COSHH - Control of Substances Hazardous to Health
CPS - Countryside Premium Scheme
Cross Compliance - Principle that producers need to comply with as a condition of receiving financial support through IACS and SRDP

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DCS - Deer Commission for Scotland
Diffuse Pollution - Pollution arising from land use activities (urban and rural) that are dispersed across a catchment and do not arise as a process of industrial, fram or municipal sewege effluent discharge or deep mining discharge.
DMP - Deer Management Plan

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EIA - Environmental Impact Assessment
ESA - Environmentally Sensitive Area

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FCS - Forestry Commission Scotland
FDS - Field Data Sheet
Fens - A fen is a type of wetland fed by alkaline, mineral-rich groundwater and characterized by distinctive flora.
FID - Field Identifier
FIS - Field Identification System - System of allocating a unique 14 digit identifier to a parcel of land known as a FID (field identification).
Fodder crop - Crop grown for use for animal feed
Force majeure - Unusual circumstances outside a farmers control the consequences of which, in spite of all due care, could not be avoided except at the cost of excessive sacrifice on their part (ref IACS 1 2007)
FP - Forest Plan
FRV- Field Register Validation - Computer checking of all land type and use within a FID to identify potential overclaims and incompatible management.
FWAG - Farming and Wildlife Advisory Group

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GAEC - Good Agricultural Environmental and Condition Minimum European standard for agricultural land. GAEC and SMR's are the requirements for Cross Compliance
Grass Leys - Term used to describe rotational grassland.
GPS- Global Positioning System - Satellite based technique used to navigate, track and measure areas.

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HAP - Habitat Action Plan
Heather swiping - A controlled burning programme to create blocks of heather at different growth stages which benefits species like Northern Brown Argus, Juniper, and Skylark.
Hectare (ha) - A unit of surface, or land, measure equal to 10,000 square metres, equivalent to 2.471 acres.

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IACS -Integrated Administration and Control System

IFS - Indicative Forestry Strategies
Improved Grassland - Land which has been drained, reseeded fertilised or other wise modified from its natural condition.
In-bye land - Better quality enclosed and improved land on a hill farm.

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JNCC - Joint Nature Conservation Committee - The statutory adviser to Government on UK and international nature conservation.

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LAG - Local Action Group (under LEADER)
LEADER - A funding initiative to help local communities grow, using a Local Action Group (LAG) to decide on how the funding is spent
LEAF - Linking Environment and Farming
LFA- Less Favoured Area - Designated grade of land which is less suited to cash crops and more suited to livestock production due to topography, geological or climatic restrictions.
LFASS - Less Favoured Area Support Scheme
Support for agricultural businesses rearing sheep and/or cattle in an LFA.
LISS - Low Impact Silvicultural Systems
LIVESTOCK UNITS - grazing requirements of one dairy cow. Other classes of livestock are allocated a proportion of one livestock unit based on their grazing requirements relative to that of one dairy cow

LMCMS - Land Management Contracts Menu Scheme

LMO - Land Managers Options Agri-environment grant aid for land managers. Used to be called Land Management Contracts, or the Menu Scheme, or LMC
LNRs - Local Nature Reserves
Lowland raised bog - peatland ecosystems which develop primarily in lowland areas such as the head of estuaries, along river flood-plains and in topographic depressions. The surface of a 'natural' lowland raised bog is typically waterlogged, acidic and deficient in plant nutrients. Waterlogging provides anaerobic conditions which slow down the decomposition of plant material which in turn leads to an accumulation of peat. Continued accrual of peat elevates the bog surface to form a gently-curving dome from which the term 'raised' bog is derived. The thickness of the peat mantle varies considerably but can exceed 12 metres.
LU - Livestock Unit

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Machair - a Gaelic word that describes an extensive low-lying fertile plain - a type of sand dune pasture that has developed in wet and windy conditions. It occurs where beach sand encroaches on peat. Almost half of all Scottish machair occurs in the Outer Hebrides and it is one of the rarest habitat types in Europe.
MFC - Main Farm Code
MMP - Moorland Management Plan
Muirburn - controlled burning to stimulate new plant growth and encourage low-lying plants to grow by burning larger plants, such as heather.

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NFUS - National Farmers' Union Scotland
NGO - Non Government Organisation
NLFA - Non Less Favoured Area - Grade of land which has no restrictions on cash crop production from topography, geological or climatic factors

NNRs - National Nature Reserves

NPAC - National Proposal Assessment Committee
NSA - National Scenic Areas
NVZ - Nitrate Vulnerable Zone

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Off-wintering (of livestock) - Removal of sheep from Moorland to an inbye area to improve the condition of the Moorland.
OtG - On-the-Ground

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PAWS - Plantations on Ancient Woodland Sites
PCS - Protein Crop Premium
PEPFAA - Prevention of Environmental Pollution from Agricultural Activity
PMGS - Processing and Marketing Grant Scheme
Poaching - Breaking up of vegetation and soil structure by livestock when the ground is wet or soft which can result in soil erosion
PSA - Private Storage Aid

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QMS - Quality Meat Scotland

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RAMS - Risks Assessments for Slurry and Manure
RDC - Rural Development Contracts
RDR - Rural Development Regulations

RDCRP - Rural Development Contracts - Rural Priorities (the name adopted for LMC Tier 3)

RHET - Royal Highland Education Trust
Riparian - A riparian zone is the interface between land and flowing surface water. Plant communities along the river margins are called riparian vegetation. Riparian zones occur in many forms including grassland, woodland, wetland or even non-vegetative. The word "riparian" is derived from Latin ripa, meaning river bank.
RP - Rural Priorities
RPAC - Regional Proposal Assessment Committee
RPID - Rural Payments and Inspections Directorate (see also SGRPID)
RSPB - Royal Society for the Protection of Birds
RSS - Rural Stewardship Scheme
Rush pasture - Permanent pasture on poorly drained in-bye land that is periodically saturated with water and where large areas are dominated by soft rush and/or compact rush.

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SAC - Scottish Agricultural College - a knowledge-based organisation, supporting the development of land-based industries and communities through specialist research and development resources.
SACs - Special Areas of Conservation - Special Areas of Conservation (SACs) are strictly protected sites designated under the EC Habitats Directive. They form a European network of important conservation sites that make a significant contribution to conserving species considered to be most in need of conservation at a European level (excluding birds). Also referred to as a Natura Site
SAF - Single Application Form - for use when applying for the Single Farm Payment Scheme, Scottish Beef Calf Scheme, Protein Crop Premium, Energy Crop Scheme, Nuts Aid Scheme and Land Managers Options.
SAF - Species Action Framework(also needs explanation)

SAMS - Scottish Animal Movement System
SAMU - Scottish Animal Movement Unit - (based in Dumfries) which records the movements of sheep and goats across Scotland.
SAP - Species Action Plan
SASA - Scottish Agricultural Science Agency
SBCS - Scottish Beef Calf Scheme
Scrapie - Sheep disease, not transmittable to humans
Scrub - a woody vegetation dominated by locally native shrubs or tree saplings usually less than 5m tall, occasionally with a few scattered trees. It includes all structural stages from scattered bushes to closed canopy vegetation. Many different types of scrub exist, as the habitat can develop under a wide range of environmental variables. Examples of scrub types include willow carr, montane, coastal and lowland scrub (including wood edge habitats)

SCOTENT - Scottish Enterprise
SEARS - Scotland's Environmental and Rural Services
SEPA - Scottish Environmental Protection Agency
Serpentine heath - unimproved land found in just a small number of locations with serpentine or other ultra-basic rocks. It is moorland or species-rich grassland vegetation that can tolerate soils with high concentrations of heavy metals.

SFPS - Single Farm Payment Scheme
SGRPID -Scottish Government Rural Payments and Inspections Directorate
SMP - Skimmed Milk Powder
SMR - Statutory Management Requirement - Specific Legal requirements which along with GAEC are the requirements for Cross Compliance,
SMS - Scrapie Monitoring Scheme
SNH - Scottish Natural Heritage
SOAC - Scottish Outdoor Access Code - Detailed guidance on responsibilities when exercising access rights and for those managing land and water.
SoI - Statement of Intent
SPAs - Special Protection Areas - Areas strictly protected for rare bird conservation, as designated by the JNCC. Also referred to as a Natura Site.
SRDP - Scotland Rural Development Programme
SRS - Scottish Rural Services
SSC - Sector Skills Council - A group of employer-led, independent organisations that cover specific employment skills sectors across the UK.
SSI - Scottish Statutory Instrument
SSSI - Sites of Special Scientific Interest - Sites designated as important and protected for their wildlife and geology.

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Traditional Crop Rotation - Rotation of crop types, grass, cereal, root or break crop, to ensure land is not stripped of nutrients. The length of time the rotation takes and the mix of crop types is variable across Scotland due to soil and climate.

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UKWAS - UK Woodland Assurance Standard
Unimproved grassland - Grassland where less than one third is occupied by one or more of these species:

Perennial rye-grass ( Lolium perenne)
White clover ( Trifolium repens)
Cocksfoot ( Dactylis glomerata)
Yorkshire-fog ( Holcus lanatus)
Timothy ( Phleum pratense).

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Voluntary Modulation - the transfer of a percentage of the funds from the Single Farm Payment (Pillar 1 of the Common Agricultural Policy) to the Rural Development Fund (Pillar 2 of the Common Agricultural Policy).

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WFD - Water Framework Directive

WFRS - Whole Farm Review Scheme
WIAT - Woods In and Around Towns
WIG - Woodland Improvement Grants
WS - Woodland Strategies

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Additional Comments

We are aware that there are some abbreviations which stand for different things (forms, organisations and so on). When these are taken in context, it should be clear which meaning is intended.