SUPPLEMENTARY WEB TABLES 2008
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These statistics were published on 24 November 2009.
All socio-demographic analyses - by NS-SEC, equivalised household income and Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD) - are age-standardised to ensure that the results are not confounded by the different age profiles of the sub-groups. The tables report both the observed and the age-standardised figures but all percentages referred to in the text are standardised. The same is true for any tables which do not include an age breakdown.
For further details of each of the socio-demographic measures and age-standardisation please refer to the Glossary in the main report http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2009/09/28102003/0).
GHQ12 is a widely used standard measure of mental health and psychological ill-health. A score of four or more (referred to as a 'high' GHQ12 score) has been used here to indicate the presence of a possible psychiatric disorder. A score of zero on the GHQ12 questionnaire can, in contrast, be considered to be an indicator of psychological wellbeing.
Men and women from semi-routine and routine households were more likely to have a high GHQ12 score (18% and 20% respectively) indicating a possible psychiatric disorder than those living in other types of households. Table W1
Men and women with the lowest incomes were more likely to have a high GHQ12 score (27% and 28% respectively) than those with higher incomes. The proportion in the remaining four quintiles ranged between 6% and 17% for men and 12% and 18% for women. Table W2
Deprivation was also related to poor mental health. Men and women in the most deprived quintile were more likely to have a higher GHQ12 score (21% and 24% respectively) than those in less deprived areas. Table W3
GP Consultations and Hospital Utilisation
Men were less likely to have consulted their GP in the last 2 weeks compared with women (15% versus 22%). For women, there was little variation by age group, however, older men were more likely to consult their GP, particularly those aged 75 and over. These patterns have remained broadly consistent over time. Tables W4 and W7.
Men who assessed their health as 'bad' or 'very bad' consulted their GP almost 2.5 times more often than those who reported their general health as 'very good' or 'good' (9.1 and 3.8 consultations per year respectively). The corresponding figures for women were more prominent with those who reported their general health as 'bad' or 'very bad' consulting their GP four times as often as those who assessed their health as 'very good' or 'good' (5.0 and 20.7 consultations per year respectively). Table W5
Both men and women were more likely to have attended hospital as an outpatient during the last 12 months (35% and 39% respectively) than as an inpatient (9% and 13%). For men, the likelihood of attending hospital generally increased with age for both outpatients and inpatients although the pattern is clearer for outpatients. For women age was less of a factor, possibly due to younger women attending hospital to give birth. Table W6
Women were more likely than men to provide regular help or care for any sick, disabled or frail person inside or outside their home (14% and 9%, respectively). The proportion providing care increased with age up to age 54 then decreased thereafter, with those aged between 45 to 64 most likely to provide regular help or care (ranging between 12% and 14% for men aged 45 to 64, and 20% to 22% for women aged 45 to 64). Table W8
Men who were carers were generally less likely to assess their own health as very good or good compared to men who were not carers. This was particularly marked for younger men (aged 16-44) where 76% of carers reported very good/good health compared to 87% of non-carers. There was a similar pattern for women except in the 45-64 age group where the pattern was reversed with 78% of carers reporting very good/good health compared to 71% of non-carers. It should be noted, however, that the sample sizes involved in this table are relatively small and therefore these findings may be subject to random fluctuations. Table W9
Women were more likely than men to have no natural teeth (14% versus 9%). The likelihood of having 20 or more natural teeth declined with age, ranging from 98% to 99% among 16-24 year olds to 17% among those aged 75 and over. Table W10
Men were more likely to report feeling 'very/fairly' happy with the appearance of their teeth than women (73% and 69%), with the proportion decreasing with age. Overall, just under a fifth of men and women reported feeling 'very' happy with the appearance of their teeth. Table W11
Both men and women reported that they were most likely to drink once or twice a week (35% and 31%). The proportion of men who drank on 3 or more days a week was significantly greater for those aged 35 and over compared with younger age groups (ranging from 34% to 41% compared with 22% for those under 35). The pattern for women was fairly similar although less strong (ranging from 21% to 24% for those aged 35 to 74 compared with 10% to 14% for those under aged 35). The proportion of women aged 75 and over drinking on 3 or more days a week was similar to that for the youngest women at 15%.
Almost twice as many men as women drank almost every day (11% and 6% respectively) with the proportions increasing with age (20% of men aged 65 and over and ranging from 9% to 12% of women aged 55 and over). Conversely, participants in the older age groups (aged 65 and over) were also the most likely not to drink at all. Table W12
For men, the mean alcohol units consumed per week (including all types of alcoholic drink) was more than twice that of women (18.0 and 8.6 respectively). Men were more likely to drink beer, lager, stout, cider or shandy with 9.4 units on average per week (including normal and strong) whereas women were more likely to drink wine with 4.2 units on average per week. Spirits were more likely to be drunk by younger women with the highest consumption among 16-24 year olds and consumption generally decreasing with age. The pattern for men was less clear with the highest consumption of spirits among the 16-24 year olds followed by the 55-64 year old group. The highest consumers of wine were women aged between 34 and 54 and men aged between 45 and 64. Table W13
The majority of men and women drink most alcohol at home (55% and 54% respectively) followed by in a pub or bar (29% and 23%). The person respondents drink most alcohol with are wife/girlfriend/partner or husband/boyfriend/partner (44% of men and 45% of women). A quarter of men and a fifth of women also drink most alcohol with friends of the same sex. Tables W14 and W15.
Physical activity at work
Around a third of men and women (29% and 33% respectively) indicated that their job mainly involved sitting down. When asked about physical activities involved in their job (i.e. whether their work involved moving between floors, climbing (ladders, scaffolding etc), lifting heavy loads or carrying heavy objects), more than three in ten men (35%) and four in ten women (45%) reported their work involved none of these activities. There was no clear pattern with age although it should be noted that the sample sizes for individual age groups are relatively small and therefore care should be taken when comparing and interpreting results. Table W16 (REVISED 14/04/2010)
Men were likely to spend more time sitting at a screen (i.e. including television viewing or using a computer or games console other than at work, school or college) on an average day than women. This applied to both weekdays (3.6 vs 3.1 hours per day on average) and weekend days (4.2 vs 3.6 hours per day on average). Both men and women spent more time sitting at a screen on weekend days than week days. Over half (52%) of men spent more than 4 hours per day sitting at a screen on weekend days compared with 44% of women. Those aged 55 and over were likely to spend more time sitting at a screen on weekdays than younger participants. It should be noted that the sample sizes for each age group in this table are relatively small and therefore care should be taken when comparing and interpreting results. Table W17
Respondents were asked about cardiovascular disease symptoms using the Rose Angina Questionnaire which attempts to identify the characteristic symptom complex known as angina in a standard way, irrespective of medical diagnosis (see 2003 report for more detail on this tool). 1.7% of men and 2.5% of women displayed symptoms of angina (grades 1 and 2 combined). These figures are somewhat lower than those reported for doctor diagnosed angina (4.9 for men and 4.6 for women - see chapter 8 of the main report). There was a general increase in symptoms by age although the relatively small sample sizes mean that care should be taken when comparing results across age groups. 6.8% of men and 6.0% of women displayed signs of possible myocardial infarction (heart attack). Conversely, these figures are higher than those reported for doctor diagnosed heart attacks in the main report (4.0 for men and 2.4 for women). These results were similar to those found in 2003. Table W18
The prevalence of intermittent claudication (estimated using the Edinburgh questionnaire) was found to be similar among men and women (2.3% and 2.8% respectively). Prevalence generally increased with age although the results are again affected by small sample sizes in individual age groups so care should be taken in their interpretation. Table W19 (REVISED 14/04/2010)
Those who had a CVD diagnosis were asked whether they'd consulted a GP in the past two weeks. Almost a quarter of men and almost a third of women had consulted a GP in the past two weeks - the majority on only one occasion. The average number of GP consultations per year among those with a CVD condition was 7.5 for men and 10.5 for women. There was no clear pattern with age. Table W20
More than half of men and women with CVD had attended hospital as an outpatient/day patient in the past year (51% of men and 58% of women). Twice as many men had undergone surgery (26%) than women (13%). Table W21
Men and women with CVD were more likely to be physically inactive than those without CVD. Men with CVD were more likely to be overweight or obese (78%) than those without (67%). A similar (but less marked) pattern was evident for women (69% of those with CVD were overweight or obese compared to 61% of those without). Smoking and drinking above weekly limits was slightly more prevalent among men without CVD than among those with CVD. This is possibly an indication that those diagnosed with CVD have been advised to follow a healthier lifestyle following diagnosis. Similar patterns were evident for IHD and stroke. Tables W22 and W23
Adults were asked to describe their sexual orientation. The majority of men and women (92%) reported they were heterosexual with 1% reporting that they were bisexual and 1% gay or lesbian. 6% of respondents chose not to answer the question. This was greater among the older age groups (adults aged 55 and over). The proportion of adults indicating they were heterosexual also decreased with age (from age 55 and over) although this is likely to be due to the increase in people choosing not to answer the question as age increased. Table W24
Men were more likely to report they were sexually active than women (66% and 59% respectively), with a marked decrease in sexual activity from age 65 and over. Both men and women aged 16-24 were less likely to report they were sexually active than adults aged 25 to 54. Table W25
The most common form of contraception among men was the condom (27%), sterilisation (22%) or using a contraceptive pill (17%), whereas women were most likely to report using a contraceptive pill (23%), sterilisation (23%), or using a condom (17%). About three in ten adults (32% of men and 29% of women) reported not using any method of contraception. The younger age groups were far more likely to use some method of contraception, and this decreased markedly with age. Younger women (aged under 35) were more likely to report using a contraceptive pill or a condom, while older women (aged 35 to 64) were more likely to use sterilisation as a method of contraception. Table W26
Location of Physical Activity
Adults were asked which places they had used for physical activity and were able to record multiple answers. The most common location for both men and women was pavements and streets in their local area (60% of men and 65% of women). This was followed by home or garden (38% of men, 44% of women), an open space or park (28% for both men and women), and a woodland, forest or tree covered park (25% of men and 24% of women). Table W27
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
3.3% of men and 4.2% of women reported having doctor diagnosed COPD. Prevalence increased with age with the highest prevalence among men in the 75 and over age group (9.5%). For women the highest prevalence was among the 65-74 age group (9.5%) although levels were generally higher for all age groups above 55. Table W28
Child Physical Activity
When considering physical activity taking place outwith school lessons, the proportion of children meeting the recommendations (at least 60 minutes on every day) has remained fairly stable for boys over time (72% in 1998, 74% in 2003 and 72% in 2008). For girls, the proportion rose from 59% in 1998 to 63% in 2003 and fell to 56% in 2008. Table W29
Boys were consistently more likely to meet the recommendations than girls at every age. For both sexes, the older age group (13-15 year olds) were less likely to meet the recommendations than younger children although this gap was more marked for girls (33% compared to a range of 57% to 67% among younger age groups). Table W30
The survey has traditionally focussed on physical activity outwith school but in 2008 additional questions were asked about physical activity within school lessons. 70% of boys and 69% of girls did some physical activity within school lessons. The most common frequency of school-based physical activity was 2 days per week (32% of boys and 30% of girls) although 23% of boys and 22% of girls reported doing physical activity at school on 3 or more days per week. Table W31
When physical activity within school lessons are taken into account the proportion of boys meeting the recommendations increases from 72% to 77% and girls from 56% to 64%. It is not possible to measure changes since 1998 using this measure as there is no comparable information on school based physical activity prior to 2008. Changes over time can be tracked in future as these questions are being included in the survey in every year from 2008 onwards. Table W32
There is no clear socio-demographic pattern in the proportion of children meeting physical activity recommendations (including school based activity). Boys in the 1st (highest) and 4th income quintiles were most likely to meet the recommendations. For girls, those in the 2nd and 4th quintiles were most likely to meet the recommendations. The highest proportions meeting the recommendations were found in the least and most deprived quintiles for both boys and girls. It should be noted that the sample sizes for certain sub-groups in the socio-demographic analysis are fairly low and therefore care should be taken when drawing any conclusions. Tables W33, W34, W35