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The Symmetric Tables

The combined Use Table showed that each industry consumes a certain mix of products in order to produce its output, and that each product is sold to a variety of domestic industries and final markets. For the analysis of industry linkages and economic impacts, it is more meaningful to represent the Use Table in industry by industry (IxI) form or product by product (PxP) form.

The industry by industry domestic flows table is the platform for the derivation of analytical tables on the structure of the Scottish economy, such as the Leontief Inverse Tables and the Output, Employment and Income Multipliers. The aggregate Industry by Industry Table for Scotland for 2016 is shown below. A note describing the derivation of this table can be found in the Methodology Guide.

Aggregate Industry by Industry domestic flows Table 2016 (basic prices), £millions​

Aggregate Industry by Industry domestic flows Table 2016

A copy of this table can be found in the downloads section.


Interpretation of the Symmetric Tables

Note: The following uses the Industry by Industry (IxI) Table for the examples of use. However, a Product by Product Table could be used in the same way.

The structure of the IxI Table is very similar to the Use Table and can be used for similar analyses but, as the rows have been converted from purchases of products to purchases from each industry, a number of additional analyses are possible.

Destination of industry output

Where the Use Table showed the destination of manufactured products, the IxI Table shows the destination of manufacturing industry output - be it manufacturing products or other secondary products. From the Use Table, the exports of manufactured products were estimated as £13,839 million (rest of UK), £14,566 million (rest of world) and £1,504 million to non-residents, whereas the IxI Table gives exports by the manufacturing industry (at basic prices) of £9,583 million (rest of UK), £12,501 million (rest of world) and £182 million to non-residents.

Industry's contribution to GDP

The income measure of Gross Domestic Product (Gross Value Added at basic prices) is defined as the sum of taxes less subsidies on production, plus compensation of employees and gross operating surplus giving a total of £133,704 million for Scotland in 2016. This figure corresponds to the income measure of Gross Domestic Product - GDP(I).

It is possible to estimate each industry's contribution to GDP from the above table by dividing the Gross Value Added (GVA) at basic prices for each industry by the overall total GVA figure. For example, the manufacturing industry contributes approximately 10% (£14,028m) to total Scottish GDP.

Industry linkages

The columns of the IxI Table show purchases made by industries and final use from each Scottish industry's output arising from both principal and secondary production. Column 3 of the IxI matrix shows that manufacturing purchases the majority of its domestic inputs from other firms in the same industry, distribution, hotels and catering, and agriculture, forestry and fishing. If the output of the manufacturing industry rose then more inputs would be required from its supplier industries.

The use of manufacturing industry outputs could in turn be influenced by the industries it supplies. Looking at row 3 of the IxI Table, if use of construction rose we could expect to see an increase in the use of manufacturing industry outputs, as a supplier to construction.

These industry linkages can be summarised as industry multipliers and can be used to look at the knock-on effects throughout the Scottish economy of a change in final use.