###### Output Multipliers

The output multiplier for an industry is expressed as the ratio of direct and indirect (and induced if Type II multipliers are used) output changes to the direct output change due to a unit increase in final use. So that multiplying a change in final use (direct impact) for an individual industry's output by that industry's Type I output multiplier will generate an estimate of direct + indirect impacts upon output throughout the Scottish economy.

###### Employment Multipliers

The employment multiplier, expressed as full time equivalent or FTE, is the ratio of direct plus indirect (plus induced if Type II multipliers are used) employment changes to the direct employment change. In other words, if you have the change in FTE employment for the industry the employment multiplier can be used to calculate the change in FTE employment for the economy as a whole.

###### Employment Effects

Employment effects show the direct plus indirect (plus induced if Type II multipliers are used) employment change to the direct output change due to a unit increase in final use. In other words, if you have the change in output for the industry the employment effect can be used to calculate the change in FTE employment for the economy as a whole.

###### Income (or Compensation of Employees) Multipliers

The income multiplier, expressed as compensation of employees (CoE) wage income only, excluding mixed income, is the ratio of direct plus indirect (plus induced if Type II multipliers are used) income changes to the direct income change. In other words, if you have the change in CoE for the industry the Income multiplier can be used to calculate the change in CoE for the economy as a whole.

###### Income (or Compensation of Employees) Effects

These show the direct plus indirect (plus induced if Type II multipliers are used) income change to the direct output change due to a unit increase in final use. In other words, if you have the change in output for the industry the income effect can be used to calculate the change in CoE for the economy as a whole.

###### GVA Multipliers

The GVA multiplier is expressed as the ratio of the direct and indirect (and induced if Type II multipliers are used) GVA changes to the direct GVA change. In other words, if you have the change in GVA for the industry the GVA multiplier can be used to calculate the change in GVA for the economy as a whole.

###### GVA Effects

The GVA effect is expressed as the direct and indirect (and induced if Type II multipliers are used) GVA changes to the direct output change, due to a unit increase in final use. In other words, if you have the change in output for the industry the GVA effect can be used to calculate the change in GVA for the economy as a whole.

A more detailed explanation of multipliers and their use can be found in this paper for the Input-Output Expert User Group.