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Further Reading

Details of literature and peer-reviewed studies relevant to wildlife crime, as suggested by members of the PAW Scotland Scientific Sub-group, will appear here. Papers are hosted on external websites.


Profiling in wildlife crime: Recovery of human DNA deposited outside

Forensic Science International: Genetics, 35, 65-69. Mcleish, K., Ferguson, S., Gannicliffe, C., Campbell, S., Thomson, P. I. T., & Webster, L. M. I. (2018)

Research led by PAW Scotland science group to investigate the possibility of recovery of human DNA from illegally set traps or carcasses that are found outside. Results showed that human DNA profiles could be recovered after at least 10 days from traps, and at least one day for carcasses, opening up new avenues for forensic testing in wildlife crime investigations.


Monitoring contaminants, emerging infectious diseases and environmental change with raptors, and links to human health

Bird Study, 1-14. Movalli, P., Krone, O., Osborn, D., & Pain, D. (2018)

This paper examines the relevance of environmental indicators detected by monitoring raptor health for informing human health issues.


Analyses of the fates of satellite tracked golden eagles in Scotland

Whitfield, D.P. & Fielding, A.H. (2017)

Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH) Commissioned Report 982, providing a major review of the movements and fates of golden eagles satellite tagged during 2004-2016.


A Review of Game Bird Law and Licensing in Selected European Countries

Pillai, A. & Turner, A. (2017)

SNH Commissioned Report No. 942 explores how game bird hunting is regulated – including through licensing – in 14 countries across Europe. Case studies analyse in detail the situation in five of these nations.


SkydancerPlex: A novel STR multiplex validated for forensic use in the hen harrier (Circus cyaneus)

Forensic Science International: Genetics, Volume 22: 100-109. Van Hoppe, M.J.C., Dy, M.A.V., Van Den Einden, M., Iyengar, A (2016)

This paper launches a fully validated DNA profiling method specific to hen harriers. This could be used in hen harrier persecution investigations and could prove key to link suspects to specific crimes.


Population modelling of North Scotland red kites in relation to the cumulative impacts of wildlife crime and wind farm mortality

Sansom, A., Etheridge, B., Smart, J. & Roos, S. (2016)

SNH Commissioned Report 904, predicting the potential future population size of the North Scotland red kite population up to 2044.


Analysis of suspected wildlife crimes submitted for forensic examinations in Scotland

Forensic Science, Medicine and Patholology 10(3):357-362. Millins, C., Howie, F., Everitt, C. Shand, M. & Lamm, C. (2014)

An informative review of veterinary pathology post mortem examinations carried out in relation to suspected wildlife crimes in 2010, funded by the PAW Scotland fighting fund.


An investigation into the detection of latent marks on the feathers and eggs of birds of prey

Science and Justice 55(2):90-96. McMorris, H., Farrugia, K. and Gentles, D. (2015)

This paper is based on a pilot study, and so may not be ready for use in casework at this stage. However, it raises some interesting possibilities on the recovery of human fingerprints from evidence recovered in raptor persecution investigations.



RSPB Annual UK Birdcrime Report and Raptor Persecution Map Hub


Carbofuran and Wildlife Poisoning: Global Perspectives and Forensic Approaches

Editor: Ngaio Richards. © John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (2012). Print ISBN: 9780470745236. Online ISBN: 9781119998532

A compilation of international contributions from policy-makers, researchers, conservationists and forensic practitioners - including a chapter on wildlife poisoning in Scotland.