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Scotland in the European Union



1. Sources: Scotland: Labour Force Survey (not seasonally adjusted), ONS (Jul-Sep 2013); European Union: Eurostat.

2. Eurostat, 1 October 2013, http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_PUBLIC/3-01102013-AP/EN/3-01102013-AP-EN.PDF

3. Eurostat, non-seasonally adjusted http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/employment_unemployment_lfs/data/database

4. http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/index_en.htm

5. Supportive Business Environment; Learning, Skills and Well-being; Infrastructure Development and Place; Effective Government; and Equity

6. Europe 2020: Scottish National Reform Programme 2013, http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2013/04/9331.

7. The EU launched the Lisbon strategy for growth and jobs in 2000 as a response to globalisation. Its aim was for the EU and its member countries to cooperate on reforms aimed at generating growth and more and better jobs by investing in people's skills, the greening of the economy and innovation.

8. Sources: Scotland: Labour Force Survey (not seasonally adjusted), ONS (Jul-Sep 2013); European Union: Eurostat.

9. Government Economic Strategy, Scottish Government, September 2011, http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Economy/EconomicStrategy

10. Supporting Recovery and Delivering Sustainable Growth - GES Progress Report, Scottish Government, September 2012, http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/0040/00401529.pdf

11. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2013/04/9331

12. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/About/Performance/scotPerforms

13. http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/making-it-happen/annual-growth-surveys/index_en.htm

14. Stability and convergence programmes are prepared by Member States to present their medium term budgetary strategy. Euro members produce a Stability Programme, whilst non-Euro Member States submit a Convergence Programme.

15. Europe 2020: UK National Reform Programme 2013, http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/pdf/nd/nrp2013_uk_en.pdf

16. Scotland's International GDP Per Capita Ranking - 2011, http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Economy/Publications/GDP-Per-Capita

17. http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/publications/re-reference-tables.html?edition=tcm%3A77-313606

18. http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/lms/labour-market-statistics/october-2013/statistical-bulletin.html

19. Source: SG calculations based on THE World University Rankings 2013-14 and World Bank population data

20. Panke, D. 2012c. Being small in a big union: Punching above their weights? How small states prevailed in the vodka and the pesticides cases, Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 25(3), pp. 329-344.

21. As above

22. A point expressed by experts giving evidence to the House of Lords Select Committee on the EU, 10th Report (Session 2007-08) assessing the impact of the Lisbon Treaty. See in particular evidence cited in Chapter 4, especially at 4.37-4.64. The same point is made by Miller, V. "Voting behavior in the EU Council", SN/IA/6646 House of Commons Library.

23. See for example: Panke, D, "Small states in the European Union: structural disadvantage in EU policy-making and counter-strategies", Journal of European Public Policy 16:6 799-817: Golub, J. "How the European Union does not work: national bargaining success in the Council of Ministers", Journal of European Public Policy 19:9 1294-1315: Panke, D. "Small states in EU negotiations: Political dwarfs or power-brokers?", Cooperation and Conflict 46(2) 123-143. Skilling, D. 2012. In uncertain seas: Positioning small countries to succeed in a changing world. Landfall Strategy Group. http://www.landfallstrategy.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Small-countries.pdf:

24. See Haverland, M. & Liefferink, D. "Member State interest articulation in the Commission phase. Institutional pre-conditions for influencing 'Brussels'" Journal of European Public Policy 19:2 179-197

25. Peutter, U. (2012) "Europe's deliberative intergovernmentalism: the role of the Council and the European Council in EU economic governance" Journal of European Public Policy 19:2 161-178

26. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Structural_business_statistics_overview

27. The EU in the World 2013: A Statistical Portrait: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-30-12-861/EN/KS-30-12-861-EN.PDF

28. WTO Country Profiles: http://stat.wto.org/CountryProfile/WSDBCountryPFView.aspx?Language=E&Country=E27

29. An overview of these studies is provided in the following report: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/227069/2901084_SingleMarket_acc.pdf

30. Review of the Balance of Competencies between the United Kingdom and the European Union: The Single Market, July 2013, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/227069/2901084_SingleMarket_acc.pdf

31. Steps towards a deeper economic integration: the Internal Market in the 21st Century - a contribution to the Single Market Review, January 2007, http://ec.europa.eu/economy_finance/publications/publication784_en.pdf

32. Eurostat

33. Re-launching the Single Market, House of Lords European Union Committee, 15th Report of Session 2010-11, April 2011

34. The Economic Consequences for the UK and the EU of Completing the Single Market, BIS Economics Paper No. 11, http://www.bis.gov.uk/assets/BISCore/economics-and-statistics/docs/E/11-517-economic-consequences-of-completing-single-market.pdf

35. European Union Finances 2012: statement on the 2012 EU Budget and measures to counter fraud and financial management, HM Treasury, July 2012

36. In 2010 there were 10 net contributors to the EU Budget: Germany, UK, France, Italy, Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark, Austria, Finland and Cyprus.

37. Productivity in the UK 6: Progress and New Evidence, HM Treasury: http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http:/www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/ent_prod_index.htm

38. Global Connections Survey 2011, Scottish Government, http://www.scotland.gov.uk/topics/statistics/browse/economy/exports/GCSIntroduction

39. Timing of the survey means that Croatia was not included.

40. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Statistics/Browse/Economy/snap

41. The United Kingdom Balance of Payments - The Pink Book 2013 Dataset, http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/bop/united-kingdom-balance-of-payments/2013/tsd-pink-book-2013-time-series.html (figures are not seasonally adjusted)

42. The EU-Korea Free Trade Agreement in Practise, http://trade.ec.europa.eu/doclib/docs/2011/october/tradoc_148303.pdf

43. http://ec.europa.eu/trade/policy/in-focus/ttip/

44. European Competitiveness Report 2007, European Commission

45. For example, analysis by Harris & Moffat (2013) finds that over the period 1997-2008, "…foreign-owned firms contributed relatively more to aggregate productivity growth than UK-owned plants over the period." The Contribution of FDI to Productivity Growth in Britain, 1997-2008, Harris and Moffat, March 2013

46. Ernst & Young UK Attractiveness Survey 2013, http://www.ey.com/UK/en/Issues/Business-environment/2013-UK-attractiveness-survey

47. 2013 Scotland Attractiveness Survey, Ernst & Young, http://www.ey.com/UK/en/Issues/Business-environment/2013-Scotland-attractiveness-survey

48. World Investment Report 2013, UNCTAD, http://unctad.org/en/PublicationsLibrary/wir2013_en.pdf

49. Foreign Direct Investment Involving UK Companies, 2011, February 2013, http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/fdi/foreign-direct-investment/2011-ma4/stb-ma4-2011.html

50. Fiscal Commission Working Group - First Report - Macroeconomic Framework, February 2013, http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2013/02/3017

51. British Council, Erasmus Participation Statistics, http://www.britishcouncil.org/erasmus-facts-and-figures.htm

52. European Union Finances 2012: statement on the 2012 EU Budget and measures to counter fraud and financial management, HM Treasury, July 2012

53. Fiscal Commission Working Group - First Report - Macroeconomic Framework, http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2013/02/3017

54. Government Expenditure and Revenue Scotland 2011-12, March 2013, http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2013/03/1859

55. Scotland performs well in relation to the three key world rankings for universities; the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, QS World University Rankings and the Shanghai Academic Ranking of World Universities.

56. Scottish Enterprise Source Book 2012

57. http://ec.europa.eu/research/horizon2020/index_en.cfm?pg=home

58. E.g. see discussion of the assets of research in Scotland at - www.universities-scotland.ac.uk/uploads/Researchbrief2011-final%282110511%29.pdf

59. http://www.ehea.info/

60. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/255788/bis-13-1115-scotland-analysis-science-and-research.pdf

61. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/Business-Industry/science/research-1

62. http://www.universities-scotland.ac.uk/uploads/Richer%20For%20It%20US%20-%20270813SMALL.pdf and http://www.hesa.ac.uk/

63. Single Market Act II: twelve priority actions for new growth, European Commission, October 2012, http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-12-1054_en.htm

64. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/statistics_explained/index.php/Business_economy_-_size_class_analysis

65. The EU in the World 2013: A Statistical Portrait: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_OFFPUB/KS-30-12-861/EN/KS-30-12-861-EN.PDF

66. 2013 Scottish Attractiveness Survey, June 2013, http://www.ey.com/UK/en/Issues/Business-environment/2013-Scotland-attractiveness-survey

67. Steps towards a deeper economic integration: the Internal Market in the 21st Century - a contribution to the Single Market Review, January 2007, http://ec.europa.eu/economy_finance/publications/publication784_en.pdf

68. Trading Places: Is EU membership still the best option for UK trade?, Open Europe, 2012

69. The UK Government, The economic effects of EU membership for the UK: revised Scoreboard, 2005

70. Signatories include: Sir Richard Branson, founder, Virgin Group; Lord Kerr of Kinlochard, deputy chairman, Scottish Power; Dame Helen Alexander, chairman, UBM; Sir Michael Rake, chairman, BT; Sir Roger Carr, chairman, Centrica; Sir Nigel Sheinwald, non-executive director, Shell; Sir Andrew Cahn, former head of UKTI; Sir Win Bishoff, chairman, Lloyds Banking group, David Cruickshank, chairman, Deloitte LLP, Nicolas Petrovic, CEO, Eurostar among others

71. http://www.parliament.uk/documents/lords-committees/economic-affairs/ScottishIndependence/EA68_Scotland_and_the_EU_Barroso's_reply_to_Lord_Tugendhat_101212.pdf

72. http://www.scotreferendum.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/CAB08_0122142752_001.pdf

73. David Edward, Scottish Future Forum, 17 December 2012 http://www.scottishconstitutionalfutures.org/OpinionandAnalysis/ViewBlogPost/tabid/1767/articleType/ArticleView/articleId/852/David-Edward-Scotland-and-the-European-Union.aspx

74. Crawford and Boyle, 2012

75. The detailed negotiations for the accession of Austria, Sweden, Finland and Norway took just over 13 months to conclude (see European Commission Report on accession negotiations dated 26 April 1994). This relatively short negotiating period reflected (a) the fact that each country was by then part of the European Economic Space and, as such, was generally compliant with the EU internal market rules and (b) a determination both by the European Commission and the candidate countries to bring the negotiations to a speedy conclusion. As Scotland is already compliant with all EU rules, it would seem possible to conclude discussions around Scotland's terms of membership even more speedily.

76. In accordance with Article 17 TEU

77. Fiscal Commission Working Group First Report - Annex; Assessment of key currency options, February 2013; http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2013/02/3017

78. Although the currencies of some EU countries are currently pegged to the euro as part of the conditions for joining the Eurozone (through the Exchange Rate Mechanism II).

79. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=CELEX:32006X0325%2801%29:EN:NOT

80. 2006 German World Cup and other major events

81. Bulgaria, Cyprus, Croatia and Romania are not yet fully-fledged members of the Schengen area. Border controls between them and the Schengen area are maintained until the EU Council decides that the conditions for abolishing internal border controls have been met.

82. http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/about-us/freedom-of-information/released-information1/foi-archive-immigration/21197-mea-sec-trav/21197-mea-sec-trav?view=Binary

83. Dail Eireann, Written Answers, http://oireachtasdebates.oireachtas.ie/debates%20authoring/debateswebpack.nsf/takes/dail1995031400024?opendocument

84. Dail Eireann, Written Answers, http://historical-debates.oireachtas.ie/D/0501/D.0501.199903090246.html