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Guidance on Joint Investigative Interviewing of Child Witnesses in Scotland



245. The guidance set out in this document is based on extensive psychological research as well as studies of actual investigative interviews including those undertaken in the Scottish visual recording pilots. The practices and principles mirror those set out in current training guidelines for professionals who interview children throughout Western Europe and North America.

246. This section provides a list of further reading and also contains references to the research and policy documents cited in this guidance.

247. For ease of reference these texts are listed under the following headings:

  • Reviews of the literature
  • Scottish legislation
  • Scottish policy documents
  • Scottish guidance
  • Research and review reports
  • England and Wales guidance

Reviews of the literature

Aldridge, M. and Wood, J. (1998) Interviewing Children: A Guide for Child Care and Forensic Practitioners Chichester: Wiley (Series on Child Care and Protection)
Berliner, Lucy, & Conte, Jon R. (1995). The effects of disclosure and intervention on sexually abused children. Child Abuse and Neglect, 19(3), 371-384
Brubacher, S. P., Roberts, K. P., & Powell, M. (2011). Effects of practicing episodic versus scripted recall on children's subsequent narratives of a repeated event. Psychology, Public Policy and Law, 17, 286-314.
Bruck, M., Ceci, S. J., Francoeur, E., & Renick, A. (1995) 'Anatomically detailed dolls do not facilitate pre-schoolers' reports of a paediatric examination involving genital touch'. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 1, 95-109
Bull, R. (2010). The investigative interviewing of children and other vulnerable witnesses: Psychological research and working/ professional practice. Legal Criminological Psychology, 15, 5-23.
Bussey, K. (1992) 'Lying and truthfulness: Children's definitions, standards and evaluative reactions' Child Development, 63, 129-137
Richard L. Cage and Donna M. Pence. (2006) Criminal Investigation of Child Sexual Abuse, Washington: US Justice Department, Juvenile Justice Resource Centre portable guides to investigating child abuse series
Eisen, M., Quas, J. & Goodman, G. (2002) Memory and Suggestibility in the Forensic Interview, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Ellison, L. (2001) 'The mosaic art?: Cross-examination and the vulnerable witness', Legal Studies, 21, 353-375
Graffam Walker, A. (1999) Handbook on Questioning Children: A Linguistic Perspective (2nd edn), Washington DC: ABA Centre on Children and the Law
Kuehnle & Connell (2009). The Evaluation of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations: A Comprehensive Guide to Assessment and Testimony. Wiley.
Lamb, Michael, E, Hershkowitz, I, Orbach, Y and Esplin, Phillip W (2008) Tell me what happened: structured investigative interviews of child victims and witnesses, Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell
Lamb, La Rooy, Malloy, & Katz (2011). Children's Testimony: A Handbook of Psychological Research and Forensic Practice (2 nd Edition). Wiley-Blackwell.
Lamb, M. E., Orbach, Y., Sternberg, K. J., Hershkowitz, I., & Horowitz, D. (2000) Accuracy of investigators' verbatim notes of their forensic interviews with alleged child abuse victims. Law and Human Behaviour, 24, 699-708.
Lamb, M. E., Orbach, Y., Hershkowitz, I., Esplin, P. W., & Horowitz, D. (2007). A structured forensic interview protocol improves the quality and the informativeness of investigative interviews with children: A review of research using the NICHD investigative interview Protocol. Child Abuse and Neglect, 31, 1201-1231.
La Rooy, D., Lamb, M. E., & Memon, A. (2010) Forensic interviews with children in Scotland: A survey of interview practice among police. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 26, 26-34.
London, K., Bruck, M., Ceci, S. J., Shuman, D. (2005) Disclosure of child sexual abuse: What does the research tell us about the ways that children tell? Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 11, 194-226.
Lyon, T.D. & Saywitz, K. (1999) 'Young maltreated children's competence to take the oath' Applied Developmental Science, 3, 16-27
Lyon, T.D., Saywitz, K., Kaplan, D.L. & Dorado, J. (2001) Reducing maltreated children's reluctance to answer hypothetical oath-taking competency questions, Law and Human Behaviour 25, 81-92
Marchant, R. & Page, M. (1993) Bridging the Gap: Child Protection Work with Children with Multiple Disabilities London: NSPCC
Poole, D. & Lamb, M. (1998) Investigative Interviews with Children: A Guide for Helping Professionals, American Psychological Association: DC
Poole, D. A., Bruck, M., & Pipe, M-E. (2011). Forensic interviewing aids: Do props help children answer questions about touching? Current Direction in Psychological Science, 20, 11-15.
Powell, M.B., Wilson, C. & Croft, C.M. (2001) 'The effect of uniform and prior knowledge on children's event reports and disclosure of secrets' Police and Criminal Psychology, 15, 27 -40
Saywitz, Karen J. and Kathleen Coulborn Faller (2006) Interviewing Child Witnesses and Victims of Sexual Abuse, Washington: US Justice Department, Juvenile Justice Resource Centre portable guides to investigating child abuse series
Karen J. Saywitz; Lynn Snyder; Rebecca Nathanson (1999) Facilitating the Communicative Competence of the Child Witness, Applied Developmental Science, Volume3 Issue 1 March, pp58 - 68
Steward, M.S., & Steward, D.S (with Farquahar, L., Myers, J.E.B., Reinart M., Welker, J., Joye, N., Driskll, J., & Morgan, J.) (1996) Interviewing young children about body touch and handling, Monographs of the society for Research in Child Development, 61, (4-5 Serial No. 248)
Warren, A.R. & Woodall, C.E. (1999) 'How well do interviewers recall their interviews with children?' Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 5, 355-371
White, T.L., Leichtman, M.D. & Ceci, S.J. (1997) 'The good, the bad, and the ugly: Accuracy, inaccuracy, and elaboration in pre-schoolers' reports about a past event' Applied Cognitive Psychology, 11, S37-S54

Scottish legislation

Children (Scotland) Act 1995
Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995
Vulnerable Witnesses (Scotland) Act 2004
Sexual Offences (Scotland) Act 2009
Criminal Justice & Licensing (Scotland) Act 2010
Children's Hearings (Scotland) Act 2011

Scottish policy documents

Crown Office (2007) Lord Advocate's Guidelines to the police providing information on vulnerable adult witnesses, http://www.crownoffice.gov.uk/Publications/2007/03/LAGuidVulnWit
Crown Office Procurator Fiscal Service (2006) Crown Practice Statement issued by the Lord Advocate in relation to the provision of information by the Crown in High Court cases
Law Society of Scotland (undated) Code of Conduct for Criminal Work
Scottish Executive (2002) Vital Voices: Helping Vulnerable Witnesses Give Evidence, Consultation Paper.
Scottish Executive (2003) Vital Voices: Helping Vulnerable Witnesses Give Evidence, Policy Statement
Scottish Office (1997) Towards a Just Conclusion: vulnerable and intimidated witnesses in Scottish court cases, Edinburgh: HMSO,
Scottish Office (1998) Protecting Children: a shared responsibility
Visual Recording Pilots National Steering Group (2005) Visually recorded interviewing of child witnesses in Scotland Interim report of the National Steering Group, March 2005, unpublished
Visual Recording Pilots National Steering Group (2005) Draft protocol on disclosure, editing, precognition and transcription, 25 March 2005, unpublished

Scottish guidance

Guidance on support for child witnesses for practitioners

Scottish Executive (undated) Supporting Child Witnesses Guidance Pack
Scottish Executive (2003) Guidance on interviewing child witnesses in Scotland
Scottish Executive (2003a) Guidance on the questioning of children in court,
Lord Justice-General's Memorandum on Child Witnesses (2003)- Appendix to Guidance on the questioning of children in court document, http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/47049/0025079.pdf
Scottish Executive (2004) Guidance on child witness court familiarisation visits,
Scottish Executive (2005) Information about child, young and vulnerable adult witnesses to inform decision-making in the legal process: Good practice guidance, http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/35596/0024977.pdf
Scottish Executive (2005a) Code of Practice to facilitate the provision of therapeutic support to child witnesses in court proceedings, http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/35596/0024976.pdf
Scottish Executive (2005b) Guidance on the conduct of identity parades with child witnesses,
Scottish Government (2010) National Guidance for Child Protection in Scotland

Guidance on support for child witnesses for children and young people

Scottish Executive (2005) Being a Witness: a booklet for children in Children's Hearing court proceedings,
Scottish Executive (2005) Being a Witness: a booklet for children in criminal proceedings,
Scottish Executive (2005) Being a Witness: An information booklet for young people in Children's Hearing court proceedings, http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/54357/0014352.pdf
Scottish Executive (2005) Being a Witness: A booklet for young people in criminal proceedings,
Scottish Executive (2005) Video identity parades: a booklet for children and young people,

Guidance on support for child witnesses for parents and carers

Scottish Executive (2005) Your child is attending a video identity parade: a booklet for parents and carers,
Scottish Executive (2005) Your child is a witness: a booklet for parents and carers,

Guidance on support for vulnerable witnesses

Scottish Executive (2006) Being A Witness: the use of special measures, a booklet for adult witnesses in criminal and Children's Hearing court proceedings,http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/113145/0027428.pdf
Scottish Executive (2006) Being a Witness: I am a Witness in Court- a guide for people with learning disabilities,
Scottish Executive (2006) Being a witness: Helping people with learning disabilities who go to court- a guide for carers,http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/152441/0040998.pdf

Guidance on support for vulnerable witnesses for practitioners

Scottish Court Service Protocol for allocation and management of live TV link facilities,
Scottish Executive (2006a) Vulnerable Witnesses (Scotland) Act (2004) Special measures for vulnerable adult and child witnesses a guidance pack, updated May 2008 to include Therapeutic support for adults and Addendum to vulnerable witnesses with special needs
Scottish Executive (2006) Supporting witnesses in the Scottish justice system information guide,
Scottish Executive (2007) Vulnerable Witnesses (Scotland) Act information guide,

Research and review reports

Burton, M. Evans, R. and Sanders, A. (2006) Are special measures for vulnerable and intimidated witnesses working? Evidence from the criminal justice agencies Home Office Online Report 01/06
Christie D. and Moody S. (1999) The work of precognition agents in criminal cases,

Clyde, J.J. (1992). Report of the Inquiry into the Removal of Children from Orkney in February 1999, Edinburgh: HMSO
Coulsfield (2007) Review of the Law and Practice of Disclosure in Scotland, Scottish Government,

Davies, G. and Westcott, H. (1999) Interviewing child witnesses under the memorandum of good practice: a research review, Police Research Series 115, Home Office London http://library.npia.police.uk/docs/hopolicers/fprs115.pdf
Davies, G., Wilson, C., Mitchell, R. and Milsom, J. (1995) Videotaping Children's Evidence: An Evaluation, Home Office Research and Statistics Department Research Findings, Number 20 London: Home Office Publications Unit
Hamlyn, B. Phelps A., Turtle J. and Sattar, G. (2004) Are special measures working? Evidence from surveys of vulnerable and intimidated witnesses, HORS 283 Home Office, 22 June 2004
HMIC (2007) Common Knowledge: Thematic Inspection on Intelligence and Information Sharing, Edinburgh: Scottish Executive http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Resource/Doc/169855/0047328.pdf
HMIC Joint Thematic Report on Victims in the Criminal justice System - Phase I
HMIC Joint Thematic Report on Victims in the Criminal justice System - Phase II
Marshall, K., Kay, E., Tisdall, M. and Cleland, A. (2002) 'Voice of the Child' Under the Children (Scotland) Act 1995: Giving due regard to children's views in all matters that affect them Scottish Executive
Murray, K. (1995) Live Television Link: An Evaluation of its Use by Child Witnesses in Scottish Criminal Trials, Crime and Criminal Justice Research Findings No.4 http://www.scotland.gov.uk/cru/resfinds/crf04-00.htm
Plotnikoff, J. and Woolfson, R. (2001) An Evaluation of Child Witness Support, Edinburgh: The Stationery Office,
Plotnikoff, J. and Woolfson, R. (2004) In their own words. The experiences of 50 young witnesses in criminal proceedingsNSPCC and Victim Support
Reid Howie Associates (2002) Vulnerable and intimidated witnesses: review of provisions in other jurisdictions, Scottish Executive Central Research Unit http://www.scotland.gov.uk/cru/resfinds/viwp-00.asp
Report of the Child Protection Audit and Review " It's everyone's job to make sure I'm alright"
Richards, P., Morris, S., Richards E. and Siddall, K. (2007) On the record: Evaluating the visual recording of joint investigative interviews with children Scottish Executive: Edinburgh
Richards, P., Morris, S., Richards E. (2006) National guidance on visual recording of JIIs with children, unpublished draft
Scottish Executive (2005c) An inspection into the care and protection of children in Eilean Siar, Social Work Inspection Agency August 2005 http://www.scswis.com/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_details&gid=197&Itemid=703

England and Wales guidance

Home Office/Crown Prosecution Service/Department of Health (2001) Provision of Therapy for Child Witnesses Prior to a Criminal Trial: Practical Guidance, London: Crown Prosecution Service
UK Government (2011) Achieving Best Evidence in Criminal Proceedings: Guidance on interviewing victims and witnesses, and guidance on using special measures
Achieving best evidence

United Nations (1989) Convention on the Rights of the Child,