ISBN 978 1 78045 471 9 (Web publication only)

DPPAS 12134

This document is also available in pdf format (958k)

**A National Statistics Publication for Scotland**

**Authors: Katherine Keenan**^{1}, Ian Grant^{2}, Julie Ramsay^{3}

^{1} Economic and Social Research Council intern, based with Scottish Government

^{2} Scottish Public Health Observatory

^{3} Scottish Government

### Errata

An erratum was published on 12 March 2012 at section 2.3 Bivariate Associations with Overweight and Obesity. The pdf and html have both been updated within the document to reflect this change.

**Figure 2.4 Proportion of adults with BMI>=30, by age and sex**

### Addenda

There is no addenda at present.

**Contents**

Abbreviations used in the report

Author's Acknowledgements

Introduction.

1 MEASUREMENT OF OBESITY

1.1 EVIDENCE FROM PREVIOUS STUDIES

1.1.1 Body Mass Index

1.1.2 Waist circumference (WC)

1.1.3 Waist-hip ratio: (WHR)

1.1.4 WHO combined classification of disease risk (WHO combined measure)

1.1.5 Waist-height ratio: (WHtR)

1.1.6 Summary of measures discussed

1.2 METHODOLOGY

1.2.1 Overview of data

1.2.2 Methods used for comparing measures of overweight/obesity

1.2.3 Predictors: measures of overweight/obesity

1.2.4 Limitations

1.3 COMPARISON OF MEASURES OF OBESITY USING SHeS DATA

1.3.1 Correlation between obesity measures

1.3.2 Associations of measures of obesity with health risk factors

1.3.3 Results of Logistic Regression analysis

1.3.4 Discussion and Conclusion

2. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH OBESITY

2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1.1 Energy intake: diet

2.1.2 Energy expenditure: Exercise and sedentary behaviour

2.1.3 Socio-economic factors

2.1.4 Ethnicity and marital status

2.1.5 Lifestyle factors, health behaviours

2.1.6 Health conditions

2.2 METHODOLOGY

2.2.1 Methods for exploring factors associated with overweight and obesity

2.2.2 Missing data

2.3 BIVARIATE ASSOCIATIONS WITH OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY

2.3.1 Prevalence of risk categories (WHO combined measure) by age and sex

2.3.2 Prevalence of BMI>30 by age and sex

2.3.3 Factors significantly associated with the outcomes

2.3.4 Socio-economic status

2.4 RESULTS OF MULTIVARIABLE MODELLING OF RISK FROM OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY

2.4.1 Ordinal logistic regression for WHO combined measure

2.4.2 Logistic regression for BMI>30

3. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION.

Notes and References

Appendix A: Correlations Between measures of obesity in the SHeS

Appendix B: Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) Curve

Appendix C: Factors associated with missing obesity measures

Appendix D: Percentage reduction in odds ratios for different obesity measures

Appendix E: Development of ordinal logistic and logistic regression models predicting risk from excess fat

A NATIONAL STATISTICS PUBLICATION FOR SCOTLAND

### List of tables and figures

**Tables**

Table 1.1 Estimated odds ratios and ROC area under the curve estimates for doctor-diagnosed CVD, by measure of overweight and/or obesity

Table 1.2 Estimated odds ratios and ROC area under the curve estimates for type 2 diabetes, by measure of overweight and/or obesity

Table 1.3 Estimated odds ratios and ROC area under the curve estimates for high cholesterol, by measure of overweight and/or obesity

Table 1.4 Estimated odds ratios and ROC area under the curve estimates for hypertension, by measure of overweight and/or obesity

Table 1.5 Percentage reduction in odds ratios and significance level after adding alternative measures to the model, separately for each risk factor, both sexes combined

Table 1.6 Bivariate associations with BMI>30, significant at the 5% level

Table 2.1 Ordinal regression coefficients for WHO combined level of disease risk (no risk/increased risk/high risk) by socio-demographic risk factors and sex

Table 2.2 Estimated odds ratios for BMI>30, by associated risk factors and sex

**Figures**

Figure 1.1 Prevalence of overweight and obese in adults, 1995-2010 (16-64), 2003-2010 (16+)

Figure 1.2 Comparison of BMI and WHO combined measure of disease risk, men

Figure 1.3 Comparison of BMI and WHO combined measure of disease risk, women

Figure 1.4 Data used for comparing measures of obesity, combining data from 2003, 2008, 2009 and 2010 surveys

Figure 1.5 Scatter plot of BMI and waist circumference values

Figure 1.6 Scatter plot of BMI and waist/hip ratio values

Figure 1.7 Prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) by different measures of overweight and obesity

Figure 1.8 Prevalence of type 2 diabetes by different measures of overweight and obesity

Figure 1.9 Prevalence of hypertension by different measures of overweight and obesity

Figure 1.10: Prevalence of high cholesterol by different measures of overweight and obesity

Figure 2.1 Data used for exploring factors associated with obesity, combining data from 2008, 2009 and 2010 surveys

Figure 2.2 Proportion at risk of obesity-related disease according to WHO combined measure, men

Figure 2.3 Proportion at risk of obesity-related disease according to WHO combined measure, women

Figure 2.4 Proportion of adults with BMI>30, by age and sex

Figure 2.5 Prevalence of BMI>30, by SIMD and sex (age standardised)