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The Societal Cost of Alcohol Misuse in Scotland for 2007

DescriptionThe study uses a cost of illness approach to derive estimates of the cost of alcohol misuse in Scotland for 2007.
ISBN0 7559 7734 5
Official Print Publication DateJanuary 2010
Website Publication DateJanuary 12, 2010

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York Health Economics Consortium, University of York
ISBN 978 0 7559 7734 5 (Web only publication)
This document is also available in pdf format (764k)

CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1 INTRODUCTION
Overview
Recent Policies Relating to Alcohol
Aim and Objective of Study
Defining Alcohol Misuse
Structure of Report

2 THE SCALE OF ALCOHOL MISUSE IN SCOTLAND
Overview
Categorising Problematic Drinking
Numbers of Hazardous and Harmful Drinkers in Scotland

3 METHODOLOGY
Overview
Literature Searching and Review
Generic Cost-of-Illness Studies
Cost-of-Illness Studies for Substance Misuse
Development of International Guidelines
Derivation of Costs Associated with Alcohol Misuse in Scotland

4 RECENT STUDIES OF ALCOHOL MISUSE
Overview
Previous Scottish Studies
Previous English Studies
Other Studies

5 HEALTHCARE SERVICES: RESOURCE USE AND COSTS
Introduction
GP and Practice Nurse ( PN) Consultations
Community Psychiatric Team Contacts
Community Dispensed Drugs
Laboratory Tests
Hospital Costs
Accident and Emergency Attendances
Outpatient Attendances
Day Hospital Attendances
Ambulance Journeys
Alcohol Services
Limitations and Summary of Costs

6 SOCIAL CARE EXPENDITURE
Children and Families
Criminal Justice Social Work
Care Homes
Children's Hearing System
Limitations and Summary of Costs

7 COST OF CRIME
Outline of Section
Introduction
Alcohol-Specific Offences
Alcohol-Related Crimes and Offences
Limitations and Summary of Costs

8 COST TO PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY OF SCOTTISH ECONOMY
Introduction
Presenteeism
Absenteeism
Unemployment
Premature Mortality
Limitations and Summary of Costs

9 WIDER COSTS
Introduction
Treatment of Wider Costs in Previous Studies
Estimating Intangible Costs
The Adopted Approach to Estimating the Wider Costs of Alcohol Misuse
Other Aspects Relating to Wider Costs
Limitations and Summary of Costs

10 DISCUSSION

References

Appendix A: An Overview of Cost-of-Illness Studies
Appendix B: Costs of Alcohol Misuse Studies
Appendix C: Relating to Healthcare
Appendix D: Relating to Social Care
Appendix E: Relating to Crime
Appendix F: Relating to Costs to the Economy
Appendix G: Additional Material on Wider Costs - Costs of Accidents

List of Tables

Table E.1: Estimated societal costs of alcohol misuse in Scotland for 2007
Table 2.1: Estimated numbers of hazardous drinkers and harmful drinkers aged 16+ years in Scotland in 2007
Table 4.1: Estimated Costs of Alcohol Misuse in Scotland from Recent Cost-of-Illness Studies - annual cost (£m)
Table 4.2: Estimated Costs of Alcohol Misuse in England, 2001 prices (£m)
Table 5.1: Number of non-psychiatric hospital episodes and bed days wholly attributable to alcohol misuse 2007/08 (by primary diagnosis only)
Table 5.2: Number of psychiatric hospital episodes and bed days wholly attributable to alcohol misuse 2007/08 (by primary diagnosis only)
Table 5.3: Number of non-psychiatric hospital episodes and bed days wholly attributable to alcohol misuse 2007/08 (by diagnosis, in any position)1
Table 5.4: Number of psychiatric hospital episodes and bed days wholly attributable to alcohol misuse 2007/08 (by diagnosis, in any position)
Table 5.5: A&E Attendances
Table 5.6: Ambulance journeys
Table 5.7: Estimates of NHS board and council spend on alcohol services
Table 5.8: Estimates of Government direct spend on alcohol ( e.g. research)
Table 5.9: Summary of health care costs
Table 6.1: Total gross expenditure on social work relating to children and families (excluding Children's Panel)
Table 6.2: Estimates for expenditure on alcohol-related children and families social care
Table 6.3: Estimated number of referrals to the Hearing System on alcohol-related alleged grounds of 'lack of parental care'
Table 6.4: Estimated social care costs due to alcohol misuse in 2007
Table 7.1: Number of offences which specifically mention alcohol
Table 7.2: Estimated custody costs associated with alcohol-specific offences
Table 7.3: Estimated court and prosecution costs for alcohol-specific offences
Table 7.4: Penalties for drunkenness and drink/drug driving
Table 7.5: Costs associated with the penalties imposed for alcohol-specific offences
Table 7.6: Matching Scottish crime categories with existing English crime categories
Table 7.7: Crime volumes - police recorded and estimated total
Table 7.8: Estimated number of offences committed by sex and age group
Table 7.9a: Estimated volume of alcohol-related crime (police recorded and unrecorded crime)
Table 7.9b: Estimated volume of alcohol-related crime (police recorded and unrecorded crime)
Table 7.10a: Summary of costs in anticipation of, consequence of and response to crime (drunk as one reason for crime) (2007/08)
Table 7.10b: Summary of costs in anticipation of, consequence of and response to crime (drunk at time of crime) (2007/08)
Table 7.11: Summary of crime costs associated with alcohol misuse
Table 8.1: Costs of Alcohol-related Presenteeism to the Scottish Economy in 2007
Table 8.2: Costs of Alcohol-related Absenteeism in Scotland, 2007
Table 8.3: Estimated Costs to Scottish Economy in 2007 due to Alcohol-related Premature Mortality in 2007 (Approach 1)
Table 8.4: Estimated Costs to Scottish Economy in 2007 due to Alcohol-related Premature Mortality in 2007 (Approach 2)
Table 8.5: Estimated Costs (£ million) to Productive Capacity of Scottish Economy Due to Alcohol Misuse in 2007
Table 9.1: Lost value of non-paid work and activities that would have been undertaken prior to retirement age by people who were not part of the workforce
Table 9.2: Lost value of non-paid work and activities that would have been undertaken post retirement until expected lifespan
Table 9.3: Costs of premature mortality: intangible social (human) costs associated with premature life years lost
Table 9.4: Summary of wider costs associated with alcohol misuse
Table 10.1: Distribution of annual costs by main resource category in Scotland (2007 estimates)

List of Figures

Figure 5.1: Main funding streams for drug and alcohol services 2007/08
Figure 10.1: Distribution of annual societal cost (mid-point values) of alcohol misuse in Scotland for 2007 (£ million)

The views expressed in this report are those of the researcher and
do not necessarily represent those of the Department or Scottish Ministers.

This report is available on the Scottish Government Social Research website only
www.scotland.gov.uk/socialresearch.