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Review of Greenhouse Gas Life Cycle Emissions, Air Pollution Impacts and Economics of Biomass Production and Consumption in Scotland

DescriptionReview of Greenhouse Gas Life Cycle Emissions, Air Pollution Impacts and Economics of Biomass Production and Consumption in Scotland
ISBN
Official Print Publication Date
Website Publication DateSeptember 25, 2006

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Final Report: SEERAD Project FF/05/08
June 09, 2006

ISBN 0 7559 62613 (Web only publication)

This document is also available in pdf format (1.2MB)

Contents

Executive Summary

1. Introduction
1.1 The Need for New Energy Sources
1.2 Policy Framework
1.3 Biomass: Advantages and Drawbacks
1.4 Report Aim and Structure

2. Biomass Sources, End-Uses and Conversion Technologies
2.1 Background
2.2 Biomass Feedstocks
2.3 Biomass End-Uses and Conversion Technologies
2.4 Future Options
2.5 Summary of Biomass Utilisation Pathways

3. Potential of Biomass Feedstocks for Energy Generation in Scotland
3.1 Background
3.2 Current and Potential Availability/Production of Biomass Feedstocks in Scotland
3.3 Current and Potential Bioenergy Market Development in Scotland
3.4 Comparison with other Renewables
3.5 Energy Generation Potential Conclusions and Recommendations

4. Greenhouse Gas and Energy Balances of Biomass Energy Options
4.1 Background
4.2 Baseline Greenhouse Gas and Energy Balances
4.3 Greenhouse Gas and Energy Balances of Heat Production from Biomass
4.4 Greenhouse Gas and Energy Balances of Electricity Production from Biomass
4.5 Greenhouse Gas and Energy Balances of Combined Heat and Power Production from Biomass
4.6 Greenhouse Gas and Energy Balances of Transport Biofuel Production
4.7 Key Uncertainties
4.8 Greenhouse Gas and Energy Balance Conclusions and Recommendations

5. Environmental Impacts of Biomass Energy Options
5.1 Background
5.2 Air Quality Impacts of Heat Production from Biomass
5.3 Air Quality Impacts of Electricity/Large CHP Production from Biomass
5.4 Air Quality Impacts of Transport Biofuel Production
5.5 Air Quality Impacts of Illustrative Bioenergy Scenarios for 2020
5.6 Uncertainty Considerations
5.7 Water Quality
5.8 Soils
5.9 Biodiversity
5.10 Environmental Impact Conclusions and Recommendations

6. Economics of Biomass Production and Consumption in Scotland
6.1 Background
6.2 Heat
6.3 Electricity/ CHP
6.4 Transport Biofuels
6.5 Further Issues Related to the Economics of Biomass Energy Options
6.6 Economics Conclusions and Recommendations

7. Conclusions and Recommendations
7.1 General Conclusions
7.2 Recommendations for Further Studies

Annex 1: Illustrative LCA Spreadsheet Analysis of Biomass Energy System Relevant To Scotland
Annex 2: Literature Reviews of Greenhouse Gas and Energy Balance Studies
Annex 3: Summary of Studies on Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas and Energy Balances of Biomass Energy Technologies
Annex 4: Summary of Studies on Life Cycle Air Pollutant Balances of Biomass Energy Technologies
Annex 5: Non-Exhaustive Summary of Major Grant Schemes Available for the Development of the Biomass Sector in Scotland

Authors:
David Galbraith - University of Aberdeen
Pete Smith - University of Aberdeen
Nigel Mortimer - North Energy Associates
Rob Stewart - Netcen
Melanie Hobson - Netcen
Gavin McPherson - Estrata Ltd.
Robert Matthews - Forest Research
Paul Mitchell - University of Aberdeen
Maria Nijnik - Macaulay Institute
John Norris - Netcen
Ute Skiba - Centre for Ecology and Hydrology
Jo Smith - University of Aberdeen
Willie Towers - Macaulay Institute

Contact

Climate Change and Air Division
Scottish Executive
Victoria Quay
Edinburgh
EH6 6QQ

(0131-244-7250

The views expressed in this report are those of the researchers and do not necessarily reflect those of the Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department or Scottish Ministers.