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Long Distance Commuting in Scotland

DescriptionAnalysis of the prevalence and pattern of long distance commuting in Scotland.
ISBN0 7559 6178 1
Official Print Publication DateAugust 2006
Website Publication DateAugust 01, 2006

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Scottish Household Survey/Transport Research Planning Group Topic Report
Lucy Barker and David Connolly, MVA
ISBN 0 7559 6178 1
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Contents

FOREWORD

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER TWO BACKGROUND AND PREVIOUS RESEARCH
Introduction
Background
Definitions
Trends in long distance commuting (Great Britain)
The nature of long distance commuting
Residential and workplace locations
Factors affecting residential location
Mode choice and travel time
Gender aspects to long distance commuting
Travel to/from school
Policy aspects

CHAPTER THREE DATA COLLECTION AND CLEANING
Introduction
Data sources
SHS data
SHS data cleaning
Census data
Journey time estimates

CHAPTER FOUR UNDERSTANDING THE CURRENT GEOGRAPHIC PATTERN OF LONG DISTANCE COMMUTING
Introduction
Proportion of long distance commuting trips to all trips on the Scottish transport network
Distance travelled
Geographic distribution of long distance commuters
Distribution by Regional Transport Partnership
Distribution by Local Authority
Distribution by Data Zone
Analysis of long distance commuting by the standard 6-way rural/remoteness classification
Distribution of long distance commuting by main mode
Distribution of long distance commuting by main employment centres

CHAPTER FIVE UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACT OF LONG DISTANCE COMMUTING ON THE SCOTTISH TRANSPORT NETWORK
Introduction
Long distance commuting and contribution to traffic volumes
Long distance commuting and average vehicle speeds
Long distance commuting and vehicle emissions

CHAPTER SIX INVESTIGATING TRENDS IN LONG DISTANCE COMMUTING
Introduction
National travel survey trends
Geographic comparison of 1991 and 2001 census travel to work data
Analysis of SHS commuting trip-length data
Comparison of Census, NTS and SHS historic trends
Census historic trends and TMfS predicted trends
Analysis of TMfS forecasts of future travel to work trip length distribution

CHAPTER SEVEN UNDERSTANDING THE LONG DISTANCE COMMUTER - QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS
Introduction
Inter-relationships between variables
SHS and average commuting distance
Analysis of variance
Long distance travel to education
Additional comparisons between short and long distance commuters
Mode choice

CHAPTER EIGHT UNDERSTANDING THE LONG DISTANCE COMMUTER - QUALITATIVE RESEARCH
Introduction
Worst aspects of long distance commuting
Best aspects of long distance commuting
Consequences of long distance commuting
Home location
Workplace location
Likelihood of continuing to commute over a long distance
Changes in the long distance commuting experience over time
Future changes anticipated in commuting experience
Alternative options

CHAPTER NINE CONCLUSIONS AND POLICY CONSIDERATIONS
Introduction
Stabilising traffic levels
Environmental impacts
Public transport
Policies to discourage people from commuting long distances by car
Road pricing
Park and ride Green travel plans, car sharing and working from home
Land-use planning and long distance commuting
The nature of long distance commuting

ANNEX 1 ANALYSIS OF MAJOR EMPLOYMENT CENTRES
Aberdeen
Dundee
Edinburgh
Glasgow
Inverness

ANNEX 2 COMPARISON OF 1991 AND 2001 CENSUS TRAVEL TO WORK DATA

ANNEX 3 SHS ANALYSIS
Tukey HSD and mean distance
First ANOVA
Second ANOVA

ANNEX 4 LONG DISTANCE COMMUTERS DISCUSSION GUIDE
Introduction
General issues
Mode choice
Home
Work
The future

REFERENCES

TABLES
Table 2.1: Long distance trips within GB by length and purpose: 2002-2004 average
Table 2.2: Odds of being a long distance commuter (30+km)
Table 2.3: Factors influencing commuting distance
Table 2.4: Reasons for moving house ( BHPS Great Britain 1991 to 2000)
Table 2.5: Factors affecting residential location
Table 2.6: Factors affecting work/workplace choice
Table 2.7: Factors affecting commuting mode choice
Table 2.8: Mode and distance to work 2001 Scottish Census
Table 2.9: Sex and distance travelled to work 2001 Scottish Census
Table 3.1: 'Actual road-based' distance compared to 'crow-flies' estimates
Table 4.1: Census 2001: Commuting distance (less than 50km) Scottish residents in employment
Table 4.2: Percentage of long distance commuting by Regional Transport Partnerships (Census 2001)
Table 4.3: Share of long distance out-commuting by Local Authority
Table 4.4 Share of long distance in-commuting by Local Authority
Table 4.5: Long distance out-commuters: 6-Fold urban rural classification
Table 4.6: Long distance in-commuters by urban rural classification
Table 4.7: Long distance in-commuters: mode share
Table 4.8: Long distance out-commuting mode share by Local Authority
Table 4.9: Long distance in-commuting mode-share by Local Authority
Table 5.1: Change in average speed by road type
Table 5.2: Change in Local Authority average speed
Table 5.3: Total annual AM emissions (Tonnes)
Table 5.4: Percentage reduction in AM peak emissions by Local Authority Area
Table 6.1: NTS ( GB) average trip length (kilometres) per person
Table 6.2: NTS ( GB) average trip time (minutes) per person
Table 7.1: Percentage of long distance commuters by mode ( SHS February 1999 - March 2005)
Table 7.2: Car long distance commuters by urban/rural 6 fold classification ( SHS 1999-2005)
Table 7.3: Household type groupings
Table 7.4: School child: road-based distance estimates between home and school
Table 7.5: Percentage of children travelling 15+km to/from school by urban/rural classification
Table 7.6: Satisfaction with schooling ( SHS February 1999 to March 2005)
Table 7.7: Years at current address for short and long distance commuters
Table 7.8: Illness and/or disability and percentages long and short distance commuting
Table 7.9: Frequency of local bus use for long and short distance commuters
Table 7.10: 'Public transport option' and home/workplace urban/rural classification
Table 7.11: Long and short distance commuters who change mode
Table 8.1: Profile of focus group participants

FIGURES
Figure 4.1: AM Peak journey purposes
Figure 4.2: PM Peak journey purposes
Figure 4.3: Proportion long distance commuting in AM peak by Local Authority
Figure 4.4: commuting distance (less than 50km)
Figure 4.5: Number of long distance out-commuters by Local Authority
Figure 4.6: Number of long distance in-commuters by Local Authority
Figure 4.7: 'Long distance ratio' out-commuting by Local Authority
Figure 4.8: 'Long distance ratio' in-commuting by Local Authority
Figure 4.9: Absolute numbers of long distance out-commuters in Scotland
Figure 4.10: Absolute numbers of long distance out-commuters in central Scotland
Figure 4.11: Absolute numbers of long distance in-commuters in Scotland
Figure 4.12: Absolute numbers of long distance in-commuters in central Scotland
Figure 4.13: Percentage of long distance out-commuters for long distance threshold of 15km
Figure 4.14: Percentage of long distance out-commuters for long distance thresholds of 20km
Figure 4.15: Percentage of long distance out-commuters for long distance thresholds of 25km
Figure 4.16: Percentage of long distance out-commuters for long distance thresholds of 30km
Figure 4.17: Percentage of long distance in-commuters for long distance threshold of 15km
Figure 4.18: Percentage of long distance in-commuters for long distance threshold of 20km
Figure 4.19: Percentage of long distance in-commuters for long distance threshold of 25km
Figure 4.20: Percentage of long distance in-commuters for long distance threshold of 30km
Figure 4.21: All Scotland Census 2001 travel to work: difference between numbers of people working in a data zone and number of employed residents living within the data zone
Figure 4.22: Central Scotland Census 2001 travel to work: difference between numbers of people working in a data zone and number of employed residents living within the data zone
Figure 4.23: Out - commuting mode share by Regional Transport Partnership
Figure 4.24: In - commuting mode share by Regional Transport Partnership
Figure 5.1: Long distance commuting: number of vehicles in AM peak - all TMfS area (2002)
Figure 5.2: Long distance commuting: number of vehicles in AM Peak - central Scotland (2002)
Figure 5.3: Long distance commuting: percentage of total AM peak traffic - TMfS area (2002)
Figure 5.4: Long distance commuting: percentage of total AM peak traffic - central Scotland (2002)
Figure 5.5: Percentage change in vehicle speed following the removal of long distance commuters
Figure 5.6: Percentage change in vehicle speed following the removal of long distance commuters
Figure 6.1: The percentage change in long distance out-commuting between 1991 and 2001 by Regional Transport Partnership
Figure 6.2: The percentage change in long distance out-commuting between 1991 and 2001 by Local Authority
Figure 6.3: The percentage change in long distance in-commuting between 1991 and 2001 by Local Authority
Figure 6.4: Long distance mode share (Scottish Census 1991 and 2001)
Figure 6.5: Percentage change in car driver mode share by Local Authority
Figure 6.6: Percentage change in car driver mode share by Local Authority
Figure 6.7: SHS Commuting Trips (February 1999 to March 2005)
Figure 6.8: Average commuting distance by year ( NTS, Census and SHS data)
Figure 6.9: Census historic trends and TMfS predicted trends
Figure 6.10: Changes in percentage of long distance out-commuters by Local Authority
Figure 6.11: Changes in percentage of long distance in-commuters by Local Authority
Figure 6.12: Changes in absolute numbers of long distance out-commuters by Local Authority
Figure 6.13: Changes in absolute numbers of long distance in-commuters by Local Authority
Figure 6.14: Changes in percentage of long distance out-commuters by RTP
Figure 6.15: Average commuting distance in 1991 and 2001 for out-commuters by each RTP
Figure 7.1: Average commuting distance by gender and age ( SHS February 1999 to March 2005)
Figure 7.2: Average commuting distance by gender and income
Figure 7.3: Average commuting distance by gender and urban/rural classification
Figure 7.4: Average commuting distance by gender and social class groupings
Figure 7.5: Average commuting distance by gender and household
Figure 7.6: Average commuting distance by household composition
Figure 7.7: Average commuting distance and single occupancy households (car availability and gender)
Figure 7.8: Usual method of travel to work for short and long distance commuters
Figure 7.9: Reasons for current mode choice for long and short distance commuters)
Figure 7.10: Car commuters' reasons for not using public transport
Figure 7.11: Commuters who changed their usual method of travel to work ('mode one year ago' and 'current mode')
Figure 7.12: Commuters who changed their usual method of travel to work and percentage change in mode share ('mode one year ago' and 'current mode')
Figure 7.13: Short distance commuters who changed mode: modes before and after
Figure 7.14: Long distance commuters who changed mode: modes before and after change
Figure 7.15: Reasons for changing mode (long and short distance commuters