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Professional Standards for Lecturers in Scotland's Colleges: June 2006

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Professional Standards for Continuing Professional Development ( CPD)

Professional Standards for CPD: Managing an Inclusive Learning Environment

Context and Rationale

Learner rights to equality of opportunity and access to learning are enshrined in key legislation. Scotland's colleges are committed to ensuring that everyone has a chance to learn regardless of their background or current personal circumstances. Colleges have embraced the widening access agenda and actively seek new learners from a wide range of social, economic and educational backgrounds. Lecturers need to anticipate any potential barriers that individual learners may encounter and promote equality of opportunity and positive attitudes to human diversity.

Standards

The lecturer should be able to:

1. Identify and analyse own attitudes, values and beliefs and assess their impact on the achievement of an inclusive learning environment.
2. Analyse the impact of real and perceived barriers to learning.
3. Plan and implement effective strategies to overcome barriers to learning, including the selection and development of appropriate learning materials and delivery and assessment methods.
4. Promote positive attitudes to human diversity through accessible learning, teaching and assessment approaches.
5. Manage the learning environment proactively in order to support diverse learning needs.
6. Reflect on own practice and understand its impact on learning.

Indicative Content

  • Values, belief systems, world-views, attitudes, inclusiveness, diversity, accessibility.
  • Discrimination: direct and indirect; physical and emotional, personal and institutional; bias, prejudice, stereotyping. Strategies for recognising, resisting and challenging.
  • Current legislation, key agency codes of practice, codes of conduct and own organisation's policies and procedures, good-practice examples. Responsibilities: individual; organisation.
  • Access and barriers: environmental, social, financial, attitudinal, physical, psychological, practical and cultural.
  • The effects of language choice and linguistic differences: codes, jargon, register, BSL and spoken languages. Sensitivity in the use of language.
  • The principles of universality of design: creating materials and experiences that will be accessible to the widest range of users. Appropriate and effective use of universal design concept, alternate formats, and assistive technologies.
  • Learning needs arising from: personal circumstances, age, gender, faith practices, social and linguistic differences, sectarianism, local geo-demographics, disability, ethnicity.
  • Approaches to promote inclusiveness, meet needs of all learners and encourage active learner engagement: openness, trust; self and mutual respect amongst diverse learners, equality of opportunity, different presentational methods, materials in a range of formats.
  • Selection and preparation of learning materials: formats, language, diversity, accessibility, inclusiveness, promotion of positive attitudes to diversity.
  • Support for the learner: personal, learner, learning, extended learning support, referral to and liaison with specialists. Boundaries of competence and responsibility.
  • Assessment arrangements to meet diverse learning needs: fairness, equality of access, amended formats, language, validity, reliability.
  • Methods for reflecting critically on the effectiveness of own practice in meeting diverse learning needs.

Professional Standards for CPD: Promoting Good Relations Between People of Different Racial and Ethnic Groups

Context and Rationale

The education sector has a key role in eradicating racism, promoting the value of social and cultural diversity and creating an inclusive learning environment. Colleges have policies and procedures that respond to legislation and their local contexts. Lecturers work with students from a diverse range of ethnic backgrounds. Consequently, they need to be able to recognise and challenge racism and discrimination and promote positive attitudes to cultural diversity and inclusiveness.

All lecturers have a responsibility to take action to prevent racism and to promote good practice in support of social and cultural diversity. This is irrespective of the variation in the ethnic composition of communities across Scotland.

Standards

The lecturer should be able to:

1. Demonstrate a critical understanding of the principal theories, concepts and terminology relating to racism and discrimination.
2. Explain current legislation and codes of practice as they relate to the role of the college lecturer.
3. Identify and analyse own attitudes, values, beliefs and behaviour and assess their impact on challenging racism and discrimination and promoting good relations between people of different ethnic groups.
4. Use strategies effectively to recognise and challenge racism and discrimination in an educational context.
5. Use learning, teaching and assessment strategies effectively to promote race equality and positive attitudes to cultural diversity and inclusiveness.
6. Support learners and staff effectively in challenging racism and discrimination.
7. Evaluate the effectiveness of college policies, plans and procedures in eradicating racism and promoting good relations between people of different racial and ethnic groups.

Indicative Content

  • Direct and indirect discrimination; physical and emotional discrimination; individual and institutional racism; prejudice; stereotyping.
  • Patterns and causes of immigration, migration and settlement, nationally and locally.
  • Culture, values, beliefs, and attitudes of self, individuals and groups; inclusiveness, diversity, accessibility.
  • European and national legislation.
  • Codes of practice: of national specialist agencies, applicable to educational institutions, of colleges.
  • College policies, plans and procedures.
  • Responsibilities of and towards self, victims, perpetrators, own organisation, external bodies, and monitoring agencies in reporting harassment or discrimination.
  • Negotiation; conciliation; empathy; disciplinary processes; consultation; facilitation of perpetrator/victim dialogue; mediation; assertiveness; mentoring; debate.
  • Curricular material: free from prejudice and bias; actively promotes positive attitudes to diversity; languages.
  • Planning and anticipatory adjustments to learning activities and resources.
  • Cultural differences that can affect the performance of individual learners or groups of learners.
  • Impact on access, progress and welfare of learners of: admissions; guidance and support; curriculum; attainment and progression rates; assessment arrangements; staff recruitment and profile of staff complement; catering services; promotional material; partnership links; practice in recording and responding to racist incidents.
  • Impact of racism, discrimination and lack of cultural awareness on:
    • curriculum; learning and teaching; assessment; guidance and support practices
    • access, progress and welfare of staff: HR policies and procedures; career review; staff development and appraisal; management practices.
  • Impact of physical environment on individuals: classrooms, workshops, libraries and study areas, restaurants/other service areas, recreational spaces.
  • Strategies to elicit and disseminate feedback from students and stakeholders.
  • Impact assessment, including consideration of alternative actions to minimise negative impact/prevent unlawful discrimination.
  • Appropriate methods to identify the ethnic profile of learner cohorts; data trends; performance or improvement indicators; participation and activity measures.

Professional Standards for CPD: Promoting Learning and Equality for People with Disabilities

Context and Rationale

The education sector has a key role in eradicating discrimination on the grounds of disability, promoting equality of opportunity and facilitating inclusive learning. Colleges have policies and procedures that respond to legislation and their local contexts. Lecturers work with learners who have a diverse range of aspirations, strengths and needs and assist them to achieve their full potential.

All lecturers have a responsibility to take action to challenge prejudice and discrimination and promote inclusion and diversity.

Standards

The lecturer should be able to:

1. Demonstrate a critical understanding of the principal theories, concepts and terminology relating to disability and the implications of disability for learning.
2. Explain current legislation and codes of practice as they relate to the role of the college lecturer.
3. Identify and analyse own attitudes, values, beliefs and behaviour and assess their impact on challenging prejudice and discrimination on the grounds of disability.
4. Promote equality in learning, teaching and assessment in relation to disabilities.
5. Use strategies effectively to anticipate needs in an educational context.
6. Recognise and challenge disability discrimination in an educational context and use the curriculum effectively to promote equality and positive attitudes to diversity and inclusiveness.
7. Recognise the factors that facilitate and inhibit learning in the context of disability and use learning, teaching and assessment methods effectively to facilitate learning.
8. Support learners and staff effectively in challenging disability discrimination.
9. Evaluate the effectiveness of college policies, plans and procedures in eradicating disability discrimination and promoting learning and equality for people with disabilities..

Indicative Content

  • Models of disability: social, medical. Definitions: disabilities; (complex) additional support needs; direct, indirect, individual, multiple and institutional discrimination. Language: technical; pejorative terms. Disclosure; confidentiality; sensitivity; respect. Mainstreaming.
  • European directives and national legislation. Statutory codes of practice: European and national. Good practice guidelines: educational institutions; specialist advisory bodies. Institutional policies and procedures.
  • Attitudes: stereotypes; generalisation; prejudice; assumptions; labelling; identities (own and others); self-image; expectations; openness; empathy. Behaviours: reflective practice; forms of discrimination; inclusive and exclusive language and practice; dependency; patronising behaviours; promotion of independence; empowerment; consultation; anticipatory practice; responsiveness; willingness to change. Impact: participation; engagement; performance; retention; satisfaction; achievement; progression; post-course destination.
  • Promotion: publicity and representation of options; recruitment strategies; selection and induction processes; access and choice; information and guidance; learner support strategies and arrangements; assessment arrangements; assistive technologies, aids, accommodations and adaptions. Physical environment: classrooms; public spaces; toilets; catering outlets; timetabling; allocation of resources. Positive role models; mentors; positive and active imagery.
  • Strategies: Disclosure; needs assessment; learner participation; referral; staff roles and responsibilities; specialist services and resources, human, technological and financial, in-house and external; assessment instruments and arrangements. Records: learner needs; learner plans; transfer between institutions. Anticipating needs: predicting; local and national demography; transition arrangements. Reasonable adjustment.
  • Data: performance indicators; observation; participant feedback; complaints; evaluation and review. Challenge: modelling; intervention; advocacy; mentoring; advice; negotiation; conciliation; consultation; mediation; facilitation; disciplinary procedures. Action plan; enhancements; corrective action. Consequences of failure to act; proactivity.
  • Factors: Writing: mechanics/dexterity; legibility; note-taking; alternatives. Mobility: aids; restrictions; posture; comfort; positioning. Reading: level; pace; expertise; confidence. Study skills: organisation of ideas; planning; ICT skills; pre-existing strategies. Memory and concentration: short-term/long-term; recall; recording/coding; attention span. Communication: attention; insight; speech fluency; diction; aids; sociability. Hearing: aids; degree of loss. Vision: aids; degree of loss. Pain management: medication; use of alternative therapies. Stamina.
  • Alternative assessment arrangements; formats; inclusive curriculum and materials; representations.

Professional Standards for CPD: Managing and Leading a Curriculum Team

Context and Rationale

The lecturer normally works as a member of a team contributing to the design, development and evaluation of programmes. This role often extends to include responsibility for leading and managing curriculum teams but not usually in a formal line management capacity. The exact nature of this role may vary from one college to another but typically includes responsibility for the subject area, the quality of the learner experience, liaison with key stakeholders, managing and leading staff and the cost implications of decisions. It does not typically include responsibility for staff development and career review, staff recruitment or budgets. Key aspects of the role include influencing and motivating others. Experience in this role may provide a stepping stone between teaching and management.

Standards

The lecturer should be able to:

1. Manage and improve the delivery of a programme to ensure the quality of the learner experience.
2. Manage self, relationships and work demands within a developing role as a team leader.
3. Identify and analyse the factors that influence curriculum change at subject area level.
4. Influence, motivate and support other team members to create ideas and design a plan to bring about positive change.
5. Prepare, implement and monitor a development plan for a curriculum programme.
6. Identify individual and team development needs in order to develop individuals for their professional roles and as effective members of a team.
7. Contribute to the identification of resource requirements and use resources effectively.

Indicative Content

  • Quality assurance and improvement arrangements: policies and procedures; information management systems; benchmarks and examples of best practice in learning and teaching; self-evaluation methods; internal audit; staff and learner perceptions; moderation and verification; performance indicators.
  • Self development: prioritising; time management; obtaining feedback on own performance; reflection on, and review and evaluation of, performance and development activities; objective setting; negotiation of appropriate support; delegation.
  • Supporting team members and learners: communication; agreeing and reviewing objectives; modelling, mentoring and delegating; giving feedback and advice; setting professional standards.
  • Leading people: motivating; encouraging; inspiring; communicating; gaining commitment; promoting a positive culture.
  • Factors that influence curriculum change: government policies; national priorities; employment trends and employer feedback; learner feedback; community needs; access and inclusion; awarding/validating body requirements; funding environment; social and cultural diversity; progression.
  • Planning: college planning cycles; college quality systems and procedures; principles of planning; consultation; negotiation; sensitivity to culture; values and operating environment; aims, objectives and target setting.
  • Supporting individuals and the team to meet professional development needs: prioritising development needs in line with team objectives; designing and contributing to team training and development; promoting best practice in learning and teaching, e.g. appropriate use of ICT; adoption of effective tools for managing the programme team; using a range of methods for team communication.
  • Identification and use of resources: costings; budgets; timetabling; space allocation; deployment; evaluation and adjustment; alternative modes of delivery; value for money; unit costs; w SUMs per FTE.

Professional Standards for CPD: Teaching Children and Young People

Context and Rationale

Scotland's Colleges work in partnership with local education authorities and schools to provide a wider curriculum for children and young people, normally from secondary schools. College lecturers therefore need to have an understanding of the relevant legislation and Scottish Executive policies, as well as of the structure and organisation of the schools sector. Lecturers have a responsibility to meet the needs of young learners through planning and managing their learning experiences in accordance with best practice. They must also provide appropriate support to young learners, including those with additional support needs, and help them to make successful transitions to college life and work.

Standards

The lecturer should be able to:

1. Demonstrate a critical understanding of the policy environment and regulatory framework within which schools operate and schools and colleges work in partnership with each other.
2. Work effectively with partner schools on the basis of an understanding of the school environment and ethos and how it compares and contrasts with the college environment and ethos.
3. Develop appropriate and effective relationships with schools sector colleagues.
4. Apply good practice and comply with legislation in relation to the protection, welfare, health and safety of children and young people.
5. Design and facilitate learning and teaching experiences to respond effectively to the diverse needs, motivations and expectations of young learners and to promote independence in learning.
6. Apply a range of strategies that promote positive behaviour and, when necessary, deal with inappropriate behaviour.
7. Assist learners in managing their transitions from school to post-school education/employment.

Indicative Content

  • The legislative frameworks under which schools operate, e.g. the Children (Scotland) Act 1995.
  • The purpose and significance of Scottish Executive policies in relation to the schools sector, e.g. the National Priorities for Education.
  • Regulations that apply to teachers in the schools sector.
  • The purpose and significance of Scottish Executive policies in relation to partnership working between schools and colleges.
  • The structure, organisation, policies and procedures of partner schools, including support arrangements for learners and staff.
  • The legislation that applies to the protection and welfare of children and young people, e.g. 'Duty of Care', UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
  • Good practice relating to the protection and welfare of children and young people, e.g. identifying signs of all forms of abuse.
  • Strategies for effective communication with schools sector colleagues.
  • The partner school curriculum.
  • Health and safety standards, legislation and guidelines as they apply to the subject or vocational area being addressed.
  • Health and safety guidelines as they apply to children and young people, e.g. restrictions in relation to machinery, chemicals and working heights.
  • Theories of child development and adolescence.
  • Physical and social development of individual learners.
  • Social and cultural diversity of learners.
  • Codes of conduct, behaviour policies and disciplinary procedures of partner school and college.
  • Strategies to promote learning/for helping learners to manage their transitions from school to college/work.
  • Strategies to support learners with difficulties in, or barriers to, learning.

Professional Standards for CPD: The use of Information and Communications Technology ( ICT) for Learning and Teaching

Context and Rationale

The use of ICT can enhance learning, teaching and assessment processes. Colleges are increasingly engaging with learners who have high levels of expertise in the use of ICT and who expect to use these skills as part of their learning experience. To meet the needs of learners, teaching staff need to be familiar with the integrated use of ICT in learning, teaching and assessment.

Standards

The lecturer should be able to:

1. Demonstrate a critical understanding of the use of ICT for the guidance and support of learners
2. Evaluate a range of ICT resources that are suitable to promote learning and teaching.
3. Integrate ICT effectively in planning and preparing the learning experience
4 Implement the use of ICT to promote effective and independent learning
5. Use ICT appropriately to assess learner achievement and provide feedback to the learner.
6 Critically evaluate own practice in the use of ICT for learning, teaching and assessment and engage in professional development.

Indicative Content

  • Guidance and Support: diagnostic and induction tools; assistive technologies; electronic information and advice available for learners.
  • Evaluation of ICT resources: learning technologies; materials.
  • Planning & Preparing Learning: evaluation of learners' ICT skills; aims and objectives of learning; learning goals; use of e-resources in a range of different ways; accommodation of different learner needs, styles, levels and contexts; current and emerging theories of learning, teaching and assessment.
  • Facilitation of Learning: relevant legislation; strengths and weaknesses of using ICT; limitations of, and opportunities for using, ICT; learners' needs.
  • Use of e-assessment : e-assessment methods; limitations and advantages of using ICT; college policies and procedures; feedback to learners for motivation, diagnostic action.
  • Evaluation of Professional Practice and Development: quality of learning experience; learner achievement; college ICT strategy and systems; information skills and technologies; sharing good practice; professional development planning.