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More Choices, More Chances: A Strategy to Reduce the Proportion of Young People not in Education, Employment or Training in Scotland

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Footnotes

1 Smart Successful Scotland: An Enterprise Strategy for Scotland (Scottish Executive 2000, refreshed 2004); Life Through Learning, Learning Through Life: The Lifelong Learning Strategy for Scotland (Scottish Executive 2003)

2 Education at Glance, 2005

3 Note that 15-19 year olds are used rather than 16-19 year olds as this is the European convention.

4 Estimating the cost of being 'Not in Education, Employment or Training' at age 16 to 18 ES Research Report RR346.

5 Present value represents the worth today of a stream of benefits extending into the future

6 2000/01 prices.

7 This should be considered a lower bound estimate as it was not possible for the report's authors to identify all the costs (for example information was not available on the extent to which the NEET group are more likely to suffer additional smoking and alcohol problems).

8 To see why this is so consider, as an example, the costs of unemployment. The resource cost of unemployment is the output forgone considered in this study to be lost wages, the cost to government is the benefit paid out and the tax revenue forgone. The net economic impact is the sum of the impacts on the individual and the government; so while a benefit saving is a gain to the government, it is a cost to the individual (the first chunk of their earnings simply replaces the benefit forgone). As a result the net impact in this case is equivalent to the additional output.

9 Annual Scottish Labour Force Survey 2004

10 Annual Scottish Labour Force Survey 2004

11 The chart also shows 20% of individuals as 'other inactive', which includes individuals awaiting results of a job application; have not yet started looking for employment or who have not given a reason.

12 Scottish Annual Labour Force Survey, 2004

13 Analysis of 16-19 year olds not in education, employment or training in the 2001 Census, Scottish Executive 2004

14 Analysis of 16-19 year olds not in education, employment or training in the 2001 Census, Scottish Executive 2004

15 Young People Not in Education, Employment or Training: an Analysis of the Scottish School Leavers Survey, Linda Croxford and David Raffe, Edinburgh 2000

16 Labour Force Survey, Spring Quarters 2003, 2004

17 Appendix 5 provides more detail on the methodology used to arrive at this figure.

18 For example, Implementing Inclusiveness: Realising Potential, The Report of the Beattie Committee, Scottish Executive 1999

19 UCAS data shows there are approximately 1,400 gap year students per annum.

20 For example, young carers are twice as likely as their peers to have mental health problems.

21 Bridging The Gap: New opportunities for 16-18 year olds not in education, employment or training - Social Exclusion Unit 1999

22 Extraordinary lives: Creating a positive future for Looked after Children and Young People in Scotland, Social Work Inspection Agency, forthcoming.

23 Children's Social Work Statistics 2004/05

24 2001 Census

25 Information Services Division of NHS National Services Scotland

26 Reducing Re-offending by ex-prisoners - Social Exclusion Unit 2002

27 Scottish Labour Force Survey, 2003

28 Bridging the Gap: New opportunities for 16-18 year olds not in education, employment or training - Social Exclusion Unit 1999

29 Information Services Division of NHS National Services Scotland

30 Literature Review of the NEET Group, York Consulting, Scottish Executive 2005

31 Social Focus on Deprivation, Scottish Executive, 2005

32 This is consistent with the approach taken on CtOG target A to 'reduce the number of workless people dependent on DWP benefits' which focuses on seven local authority areas: Glasgow, North & South Lanarkshire, Renfrewshire & Inverclyde, Dundee and West Dunbartonshire in Scotland.

33 In this context, Regeneration Outcome Agreement ( ROAs) are an essential framework towards improved links between community regeneration activity in the most deprived areas and activity which will directly support those in the NEET group. The Community Regeneration Fund ( CRF), alongside other partnership resources, is addressing national priorities in these areas: with a focus on improvements in education, employability and engaging young people.

34 Closing the Opportunity Gap, target B

35 Final Report of the Workless Client Groups Workstream, Scottish Executive, August 2005

36 Programme for International Student Assessment ( PISA) 2003

37 Social Focus on Deprived Areas, Scottish Executive, 2005

38 School management information systems/Scottish Qualifications Authority

39 For example in North Ayrshire, the Community Regeneration Fund is supporting a targeted approach on the NEET group through activities like the targeting Young People Initiative in partnership with James Watt College.

40 Ambitious, Excellent Schools, Scottish Executive 2004

41 As well as supporting activities to support the NEET group with Community Regeneration Fund and other partner resources a number of Community Planning Partnerships are aiming to deliver specific outcomes to reduce those classed as NEET in their areas.

42 Missing Out: A report on children at risk of missing out on educational opportunities, HM Inspectorate of Education, 2006

43 Working Together: Cross Sectoral Provision of Vocational Education, HM Inspectorate of Education, 2005

44 Mapping Employability and Support Services for Disengaged Young People, Adams and Smart, Scottish Executive 2005

45 A Curriculum for Excellence, Scottish Executive 2004

46 A Curriculum for Excellence - Progress and Proposals, Scottish Executive 2006

47 Assessment is for Learning is a national initiative which aims to provide a streamlined and coherent system of assessment for school-age pupils ensuring that parents, teachers and other professionals have the feedback they need on pupils' learning and development needs.

48 Futureskills Scotland, Scottish School Leavers and their Understanding of the World of Work, April 2005

49 Determined to Succeed: A review of enterprise in education, Scottish Executive 2002

50 National Evaluation of Xlerate with XL, Durham University, forthcoming

51 Happy, Safe and Achieving their Potential, Scottish Executive 2005

52 SQA attainment and school leavers qualifications in Scotland: 2004/05

53 Children's Social Work Statistics 2004/05

54 Smart Successful Scotland: An Enterprise Strategy for Scotland (Scottish Executive 2000, refreshed 2004); Life Through Learning, Learning Through Life: The Lifelong Learning Strategy for Scotland (Scottish Executive 2003)

55 Mapping Employability and Support Services for Disengaged Young People, Adams and Smart, Scottish Executive 2005; Evaluation of the New Futures Fund Initiative, Training and Employment Research Unit, Cambridge Policy Consultants & Simon Clark Associates Limited, 2005

56 Transition: Young Adults with Complex Needs, Social Exclusion Unit, 2005, found that the way young people behave and think is highly relevant to shaping their life chances. But some young people particularly those from disadvantaged groups are often least equipped with the skills they need to make the choices that influence their futures.

57 Implementing Inclusiveness: Realising Potential. The Report of the Beattie Committee, Scottish Executive 1999

58 Get Ready for Work is for 16-18 year olds; Forthcoming Evaluation of Get Ready for Work, Scottish Enterprise

59 Implementing Inclusiveness in further education: the response of the FE sector to the Beattie Report, HM Inspectorate of Education, 2004

60 Learning for All: The Report of the SFEFC/ SHEFC Widening Participation Review Group, October 2005

61 The evaluation of Post - School Psychological Services Pathfinders in Scotland (2004-06), forthcoming

62 Mapping Employability and Support Services for Disengaged Young People, Adams and Smart, Scottish Executive 2005

63 The Youth Training Guarantee was a policy introduced by the UK Government, following the withdrawal of unemployment benefits from
16-17 year olds in the Social Security Act 1986.

64 There is also evidence from the same report that in some areas the provider landscape is cluttered, with clients (and providers themselves) struggling to understand everything that is on offer.

65 Mapping Employability and Support Services for Disengaged Young People, Adams and Smart, Scottish Executive 200. ; Evaluation of the New Futures Fund Initiative, Training and Employment Research Unit, Cambridge Policy Consultants & Simon Clark Associates Limited, 2005

66 In the important area of developing literacy and numeracy, this will involve working with Communities Scotland to build on work to engage young people in literacies learning. The roll out to learning providers of the Scottish Curriculum Framework for adult literacy and numeracy will also enhance the skills of practitioners.

67 Workforce Plus: an Employability Framework for Scotland

68 Mapping Employability and Support Services for Disengaged Young People, Adams and Smart, Scottish Executive 2005

69 Young People not in Education, Employment or Training: Evidence from the Education Maintenance Allowance Pilots Database: Rennison J et al 2005

70 For example, Literature Review of the NEET Group, York Consulting, Scottish Executive 2005 Bridging the Gap: New opportunities for 16-18 year olds not in education, employment or training - Social Exclusion Unit 1999

71 Report of the National Employment Panel's Working Group on New Deal 25+, DWP, 2004

72 Review of Funding of Learners, Scottish Executive, 2004

73 Final Report of the Low Paid Low Skilled Work Workstream, Scottish Executive, August 2005

74 In Scotland, young people in unwaged training will continue to receive a Minimum Training Allowance, notwithstanding the replacement of MTAs with EMAs in England from 1 April 2006.

75 Transition: Young Adults with Complex Needs, Social Exclusion Unit, 2005 found that young people, particularly those from disadvantaged groups, are often least equipped with the skills they need to make the choices that influence their futures. Thus, sanctions or incentives are likely to be less effective than they would otherwise be.

76 Education Maintenance Allowances: Attainment of National Qualifications in the Scottish pilots; Croxford and Ozga, University of Edinburgh, 2005

77 Department for Education and Skills

78 Report of the National Employment Panel's Working Group on New Deal 25+, DWP, 2004

79 Transition: Young Adults with Complex Needs, Social Exclusion Unit, 2005

80 Transition: Young Adults with Complex Needs, Social Exclusion Unit, 2005

81 Implementing Inclusiveness: Realising Potential, The Report of the Beattie Committee, Scottish Executive 1999

82 National Evaluation of the Careers Scotland Inclusiveness Projects: SQW 2004

83 Moreover, as well as mainstreaming within Careers Scotland, the national evaluation highlighted the potential for the key worker approach being adopted across a wide range of providers of services for excluded or potentially excluded young people

84 Data from Careers Scotland. Definition of sustained is 3 months+.

85 Mapping Employability and Support Services for Disengaged Young People, Adams and Smart, Scottish Executive 2005. The areas covered were: Drumchapel, East Lothian and Lochaber.

86 National Evaluation of the Careers Scotland Inclusiveness Projects: SQW 2004

87 Mapping Employability and Support Services for Disengaged Young People, Adams and Smart, Scottish Executive 2005

88 This approach has also proven effective in many of the projects supported by the New Futures Fund

89 E.g. from the NEET workstream key witness consultations and from evaluations including the Evaluation of the Get Ready for Work Programme: Smart and Adams for the Enterprise Networks 2003

90 Workforce Plus: an Employability Framework for Scotland

91 National guidance on planning and reporting for improvement across education and children's services, and emerging approaches to self-evaluation and inspection, already emphasise the need to focus on improving post-school outcomes, including initial school leaver destinations.

92 Local partners should include social work, health, housing, voluntary sector, careers, FE colleges, the Enterprise Networks, Jobcentre Plus.

93 The wider integration agenda includes: improving quality assurance systems across integrated services; joint inspection; integrated assessment and information sharing; and development of the children's services workforce.