We have a new website go to gov.scot

Promoting Equal Opportunities in Education - Project Two: Guidance On Dealing With Homophobic Incidents: Phase 1 Report and Recommendations

DescriptionLGBT Youth research report on how homophobic incidents and homophobia is dealt with in schools. One of seven school equal opportunities projects funded by the Scottish Executive Education Department.
ISBN0 7559 6084 x
Official Print Publication Date
Website Publication DateJune 08, 2006


Sara O'Loan, Fergus McMillan, Suzanne Motherwell LGBT Youth Scotland
Alan Bell, Rowena Arshad Centre for Education for Racial Equality in Scotland ( CERES), University of Edinburgh
ISBN 0 7559 6084 x (Web only publication)
This document is also available in pdf format (840k)




1: Research Aims and Objectives

2: Methodology
2.1 Research Methods
2.1.1 Literature Review
2.1.2 Postal questionnaire to Education Authorities and schools across Scotland
2.1.3 Survey Sample
2.1.4 Interviews with EA and school representatives in six EAs
2.1.5 Online Survey
2.1.6 Focus Group with Young People

3: Literature Review
3.1 Research into attitudes towards discrimination
3.1.1 General attitudes towards discrimination
3.1.2 Young people's attitudes towards discrimination
3.2 Homophobia and homophobic bullying in schools
3.2.1 Homophobic bullying and its effects on young people
3.2.2 Homophobic bullying and schools: barriers to progress
3.3 Policy context
3.3.1 Education
3.3.2 Health
3.4 The Rights of the Child
3.5 Examples of Good Practice
3.5.1 UK Initiatives and Resources
3.5.2 Non- UK Initiatives and Resources
3.6 Summary of Literature Review
3.6.1 Limitations of the Literature Review

4: Education Authority and Schools - Survey and Interviews
4.1 EA and School Policy
4.1.1 Anti Bullying Policy
4.1.2 Equal Opportunities Policies
4.2 Priorities, Expectations and Commitment to Equalities
4.2.1 Priority and commitment to equalities
4.2.2 Levels of expectation
4.3 Awareness of Homophobic Incidents
4.3.1 Verbal Homophobic Incidents
4.3.2 Physical Homophobic Incidents
4.4 Current Practice in Dealing with Homophobic Incidents
4.5 Current Levels of Confidence in Dealing with Homophobic Incidents
4.6 Confidence Building Measures
4.6.1 Clear national and local guidelines
4.6.2 Increased SD/ CPD
4.6.3 Inclusion in the curriculum
4.6.4 Parental approval
4.6.5 Leadership
4.6.6 Reporting Mechanisms
4.7 Inclusion of Anti Homophobia and LGBT Issues within the Curriculum
4.7.1 EA Survey Responses and Interviews
4.7.2 School Survey Responses and Interviews
4.8 Additional Survey Comments and Interview Questions
4.8.1 LGBT School Staff
4.8.2 Transgender Issues
4.8.3 Wider National Awareness Raising

5: Research with Young People in Scottish Schools
5.1 Demographics
5.1.1 Respondent age and year at school
5.1.2 Local Authority Area
5.1.3 Gender Identity
5.1.4 Sexual Orientation
5.1.5 'Racial Identity' and 'Ethnic Origin'
5.1.6 Type of School
5.2 Anti-Bullying Policies
5.3 Bullying in Scottish Schools
5.3.1 General Safety
5.3.2 Homophobic Bullying "You're so Gay!" Location
5.4 Effects of Homophobic Bullying
5.4.1 Personal effects
5.4.2 Effect on Schoolwork
5.4.3 Effect on Attendance
5.5 Young Peoples' Views on Current Methods of Dealing with Homophobic Bullying
5.5.1 Reporting Homophobic Bullying
5.5.2 Effectiveness of Action Taken
5.5.3 Attitudes towards School and Teachers
5.5.4 Parallels with racism
5.6 Discussion of homophobia and LGBT issues in school and access to information and support
5.6.1 Catholic schools
5.6.2 Visibility and 'Coming Out' at School
5.6.3 Support Mechanisms
5.7 Possible Improvements
5.7.1 Proactive and Preventative Approach
5.7.2 Open Discussion and Readily Available Information
5.7.3 Training for School Staff
5.7.4 Calls for Homophobia and Homophobic Bullying to be treated more seriously
5.8 Summary of Research with Young People

6: Conclusions

SEED Project 2 - Guidance on Homophobic Incidents


Appendix 1: Survey of Education Authorities

Appendix 2: Survey of Schools

Appendix 3: Interview Questions

Appendix 4: Online Survey for Young People

List of Charts, Figures and Tables
Chart 2.1: Guidance on Dealing with Homophobic Incidents Research Process and Methods
Table 2.1: Education Authority Postal Survey Response Rate
Table 2.2: Schools Postal Survey Response Rate
Table 2.3: Number of Primary, Secondary and Special School Interviews
Table 4.1: Summary of EA and school survey responses: inclusion of homophobic bullying/sexual orientation in Anti Bullying and Equal Opportunities policies
Table 4.2: Survey Responses to commitment to equalities in SDP
Table 5.1: Online survey respondents by local authority area
Table 5.2: Online survey: types of general bullying
Table 5.3: Online survey: types of homophobic bullying
Figure 4.1: Awareness of verbal homophobic bullying in EAs and schools
Figure 4.2: Schools: Incidence of verbal homophobic bullying in last 12 months
Figure 4.3: Awareness of physical homophobic bullying in EAs and Schools
Figure 4.4: Schools: Incidence of physical homophobic bullying in last 12 months
Figure 4.5: EAs: most likely course of action in the event of a verbal homophobic incident
Figure 4.6: Schools: most likely course of action in the event of a verbal homophobic incident
Figure 4.7: EAs: confidence in dealing with verbal homophobic bullying
Figure 4.8: Schools: confidence in dealing with verbal homophobic bullying
Figure 4.9: EAs: Confidence in tackling physical homophobic bullying
Figure 4.10: Teachers' confidence in tackling physical homophobic bullying
Figure 4.11: EAs and schools: confidence building measures
Figure 4.12: EAs survey response: inclusion in curriculum
Figure 4.13: Discussing homophobia within the curriculum
Figure 5.1: Age of Online Survey Respondents
Figure 5.2: Year of School for Online Survey Respondents Currently Attending School
Figure 5.3: Sexual Orientation of Online Survey Respondents

The views expressed in the report are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect those of the Scottish Executive or any other organisation(s) by which the author(s) is/are employed.

The Scottish Executive is making this research report available on-line in order to provide access to its contents for those interested in the subject. The Executive commissioned the exercise but has not exercised editorial control over the report.

This report has been published by Schools Division, Scottish Executive Education Department, Victoria Quay, Edinburgh, EH6 6QQ.

The report was published in June 2006.

This report is available on the Scottish Executive Social Research website only