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Harmful Algal Bloom Communities in Scottish Coastal Waters: Relationship to Fish Farming and Regional Comparisons - A Review: Paper 2006/3

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14.0 FIGURES

Figure 1. Chemical structure of domoic acid.

Figure 1. Chemical structure of domoic acid.

Figure 2. Distribution of domoic acid in Scottish waters during 1999 in mussel (Mytilus edulis) and gonads of king scallop (Pecten maximus)

Figure 2. Distribution of domoic acid in Scottish waters during 1999 in mussel ( Mytilus edulis) and gonads of king scallop ( Pecten maximus) (from Gallacher et al., 2001).
Copyright of IOC- UNESCO.

Figure 3. Light micrographs of living Pseudo-nitzschia cells:

Figure 3. Light micrographs of living Pseudo-nitzschia cells:
a) Characteristic stepped mode of colony formation ( Pseudo-nitzschia fraudulenta).
b) Single cells and short chains of Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima living within and attached to a colony of the diatom Chaetoceros socialis (from Rines et al., 2002).
Reproduced with the permission of Inter-Research, Germany.

A

B

Figure 4A. Left panel: Growth and domoic acid (DA) production by Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries in batch culture: cell number (solid circles); DA in "whole culture" (solid squares), in cells + filtrate (solid triangles), in filtrate (open triangles), a

Figure 4B. Right panel: Cell numbers (circles) and DA concentration in "whole culture" (squares) of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries grown at two irradiance levels: 45 µEm-2s-1 (solid symbols) and 145 µEm-2s-1 (open symbols) (from Bates et al., 1991).

Figure 4A. Left panel: Growth and domoic acid ( DA) production by Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries in batch culture: cell number (solid circles); DA in "whole culture" (solid squares), in cells + filtrate (solid triangles), in filtrate (open triangles), and in cells (open squares).

Figure 4B. Right panel: Cell numbers (circles) and DA concentration in "whole culture" (squares) of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries grown at two irradiance levels: 45 µEm -2s -1 (solid symbols) and 145 µEm -2s -1 (open symbols) (from Bates et al., 1991).

Copyright of the Canadian Institute for Technical and Scientific Information.

Figure 5. Relation between cellular domoic acid content and cell division rate of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries growing in silicate-limiting chemostats (from Bates et al., 1996).

Figure 5. Relation between cellular domoic acid content and cell division rate of Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries growing in silicate-limiting chemostats (from Bates et al., 1996).
Reproduced with the permission of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission- UNESCO.

Figure 6. Latitudinal distribution of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. A: Atlantic region; P: Pacific region (from Hasle, 2002).

Figure 6. Latitudinal distribution of Pseudo-nitzschia spp. A: Atlantic region; P: Pacific region (from Hasle, 2002).
Copyright of Schweizerbart, Borntraeger & Cramer Science Publishers.

Figure 7A. Outline of British Isles showing places mentioned in text with regard to 1990 PSP - toxic bloom of Alexandrium tamerense

Figure 7A. Outline of British Isles showing places mentioned in text with regard to 1990 PSP - toxic bloom of Alexandrium tamerense.
1) Cape Wrath, 2) Moray Firth, 3) Banff, 4) Fraserbugh, 5) Aberdeen, 6) Rattray Head, 7) St. Abbs Head, 8) Tweed River, Berwick, 9) Holy Island, 10) Fame Islands, 11) Budle Bay, Amble, Blyth, 12) Newcastle-upon-Type, Trow Rocks, South Shields, 13) Bell Rock, 14) Hartlepool, 15) Whitby, 16) Flamborough Head, Bridlington, 17) Belfast Lough, 18) North Channel, 19) Islay, 20) Tiree, 21) Sound of Sleat.

Figure 7B. Areas outlined indicate where toxic mussels were found during Alexandrium tamerense bloom in 1990. In hatched areas, PSP levels exceeded quarantine level (from Wyatt and Saborido-Rey, 1993).
Original copyright owned by Elsevier.

Figure 8. Spirolide concentrations in surface waters during May 2000 along the Scottish east coast (from Rühl et al., 2001).

Figure 8. Spirolide concentrations in surface waters during May 2000 along the Scottish east coast (from Rühl et al., 2001).
Reproduced with the permission of the International Council for the Exploration of the Seas ( ICES).

Figure 9. 9-1 Heterosigma akashiwo;

Figure 9. 9-1 Heterosigma akashiwo; 9-2 Olisthodiscus luteus; 9-3 Fibrocapsa japonica; 9-4 Chattonella antiqua; 9-5 "Chattonella ovata" form; 9-6 Chattonella marina; 9-7 Chattonella subsalsa; 9-8 "Chattonella minima" form; 9-9 Chattonella verruculosa; 9-10 Chattonella globosa form (modified from Hallegraeff and Hara, 1995).
Original copyright of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission- UNESCO.

Figure 10. The silicoflagellate Dicthyoca speculum: a). Naked stage (arrow indicates direction of swimming). b). Skeleton bearing stage (ch = chloroplast; fl = flagellum; n = nucleus; t = tentacle; v = vacuole) (from Moestrup and Thomsen, 1990).

Figure 10. The silicoflagellate Dicthyoca speculum: a). Naked stage (arrow indicates direction of swimming). b). Skeleton bearing stage (ch = chloroplast; fl = flagellum; n = nucleus; t = tentacle; v = vacuole) (from Moestrup and Thomsen, 1990).
Reproduced with the permission of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters.

Figure 11. Distribution of Heterosigma akashiwo.

Figure 11. Distribution of Heterosigma akashiwo. Fish icon indicates sites where farmed fish mortality has occurred during Heterosigma akashiwo blooms. Symbols C and F indicate Chattonella spp. and Fibrocapsa japonica, respectively, recorded at those sites (from Smayda, 1998).
Copyright of Springer.

Figure 12. Example of routes and rates of nitrogen (N) pollution by farmed-fish in a maximum pollution scenario of high food wastage coupled with poor N assimilation and retention.

Figure 12. Example of routes and rates of nitrogen (N) pollution by farmed-fish in a maximum pollution scenario of high food wastage coupled with poor N assimilation and retention. The assimilation and retention efficiencies are averaged from >15 freshwater and marine fish species. Values are in kg N t -1 of fish produced (from Handy and Poxton, 1993).
Reproduced with the permission of Springer.

Figure 13. Locations of toxic and non-toxic isolates of Alexandrium tamarense in UK waters showing regional gradient in their toxicity.

Figure 13. Locations of toxic and non-toxic isolates of Alexandrium tamarense in UK waters showing regional gradient in their toxicity. Populations from Orkneys, Loch Ardtoe and Firth of Forth tested positively for PSP toxins, and are assigned to 'North American' lineage. Isolates from populations to the south of this region in Northern Ireland, Ireland and England non-toxic and assigned to the 'Western lineage'; see text for further details (from Higman et al., 2001).
Copyright of Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute.

Figure 14. Surface current circulation along the Norwegian coast and southern Scandinavia (from Johnsen and Sakshaug, 2000).

Figure 14. Surface current circulation along the Norwegian coast and southern Scandinavia (from Johnsen and Sakshaug, 2000).
Reproduced with the permission of the African Journal of Marine Science.

Figure 15. Dinoflagellate blooms along the Norwegian coast during autumn, 1993 showing role of advection in regional spreading of blooms (from Johnsen and Sakshaug, 2000).

Figure 15. Dinoflagellate blooms along the Norwegian coast during autumn, 1993 showing role of advection in regional spreading of blooms (from Johnsen and Sakshaug, 2000).
Reproduced with the permission of the African Journal of Marine Science.

Figure 16. Map of the east coast of the UK with place names mentioned in text (from Brown et al., 2001).

Figure 16. Map of the east coast of the UK with place names mentioned in text (from Brown et al., 2001).
Reproduced with the permisssion of Oxford University Press.

Figure 17. Schematic picture of the large-scale circulation pattern around Scotland and route of the Scottish Coastal Current from the Irish Sea in the Minch (from Rydberg et al., 2002).

Figure 17. Schematic picture of the large-scale circulation pattern around Scotland and route of the Scottish Coastal Current from the Irish Sea in the Minch (from Rydberg et al., 2002).

Figure 18. Phytoplankton vegetation areas (I - XVI) in the North Sea and adjacent waters in May, 1948 (from Braarud et al., 1953).

Figure 18. Phytoplankton vegetation areas (I - XVI) in the North Sea and adjacent waters in May, 1948 (from Braarud et al., 1953).
Reproduced with the permission of the International Council for the Exploration of the Seas ( ICES).