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Rural Scotland Key Facts 2005: People and Communities, Services and Lifestyle, Economy and Enterprise

DescriptionRural Scotland Key Facts 2005: People and Communities, Services and Lifestyle, Economy and Enterprise
ISBN
Official Print Publication Date
Website Publication DateSeptember 12, 2005

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    Introduction

    Rural Scotland differs from the rest of Scotland but there are also differences within rural Scotland, for example between accessible and remote areas. The purpose of this leaflet is to summarise the key facts related to rural Scotland in order to provide a picture of the lives of its people. Improving the evidence base on rural Scotland will assist us in moving towards our vision of rural Scotland: a rural Scotland where everyone matters.

    What do we mean by rural Scotland?

    Rural Scotland is defined as settlements with a population of less than 3,000. By analysing drive times to larger settlements we can divide rural Scotland into:

    Accessible rural: those with a less than 30 minute drive time to the nearest settlement with a population of 10,000 or more

    Remote rural: those with a greater than 30 minute drive time to the nearest settlement with a population of 10,000 or more

    These definitions form part of the Scottish Executive's urban rural classification. The map opposite shows the full classification. Accessible rural areas are shown in a light blue colour and remote rural areas are shown in a light yellow colour.

    In order to highlight differences between rural Scotland and the rest of Scotland, this report combines the first four categories into the Rest of Scotland figures. The rest of Scotland therefore includes large urban areas, other urban areas, accessible small towns and remote small towns.

    6 fold Urban Rural Classification image

    People and Communities

    Population

    Fig 1 - Percentage of population and land by geographic area, 2001 image

    Source: General Registers for Scotland, 2001 Census

    Just over 5 million people live in Scotland, with almost 1 million of them living in rural areas. Figure 1 shows that rural Scotland accounts for almost 20% of the population. The actual population numbers are: 281,538 in remote rural, 663,166 in accessible rural, 4,117,307 in the rest of Scotland.

    Figure 1 also shows that rural Scotland accounts for 98% of the land of Scotland. The total land mass of Scotland is approximately 7.8 million hectares.

    Fig 2 Age distribution of population by geographic location, 2001 image

    Source: General Registers for Scotland, 2001 Census

    The age distribution of the population differs between rural areas and the rest of Scotland. Figure 2 shows that the percentage of the population in the age band 15 to 19 dips sharply for rural areas relative to the rest of Scotland - suggesting that younger people are leaving rural areas. From age band 50 to 54, the line for remote rural Scotland is above the other two, suggesting that there is more of an ageing population in remote rural Scotland than in other areas.

    Households

    Table 1: Household Type by Geographic Area, 2003/2004

    Remote Rural

    Accessible Rural

    Rest of Scotland

    Single adult

    12%

    11%

    17%

    Two adults

    17%

    19%

    16%

    Three adults

    10%

    10%

    9%

    Single parent

    4%

    4%

    6%

    Small family

    13%

    16%

    14%

    Large family

    7%

    8%

    6%

    Older adults

    19%

    18%

    14%

    Single pensioner

    17%

    13%

    17%

    Total

    100%

    100%

    100%

    Source: Scottish Household Survey 2003/2004

    Table 1 shows that, relative to the rest of Scotland, remote and accessible rural Scotland have lower percentages of single adult households. Relative to the rest of Scotland, rural Scotland as a whole also has a higher percentage of households with 'older adults' that is, two adults with one or both of pensionable age.

    Table 2: Household Size by Geographic Area, 2003/2004

    Remote Rural

    Accessible Rural

    Rest of Scotland

    One

    29%

    24%

    33%

    Two

    39%

    39%

    34%

    Three

    14%

    16%

    15%

    Four

    12%

    14%

    13%

    Five or more

    6%

    6%

    5%

    Total

    100%

    100%

    100%

    Source: Scottish Household Survey 2003/2004

    Table 2 shows that, relative to the rest of Scotland, there are higher percentages of households in accessible and remote rural areas with a household size of 2 or more and there are fewer single person households in rural Scotland.

    Neighbourhood and Community

    Fig 3 Rating of neighbourhood as a place to live by geographic area, 2003/04 image

    Source: Scottish Household Survey 2003/2004

    Figure 3 shows that, relative to the rest of Scotland, a higher percentage of people in rural Scotland rate their neighbourhood as very good. Table 3 shows that groups of young people hanging about is less of a problem in remote rural areas.

    Neighbourhood Problems and Role in Community

    Table 3: Experience of Neighbourhood Problems by Geographic Area (% saying each is very or fairly common), 2003/2004

    Remote Rural

    Accessible Rural

    Rest of Scotland

    Noisy neighbours/loud parties

    2%

    4%

    9%

    Vandalism/graffiti/damage to property

    3%

    10%

    20%

    Groups of young people hanging about

    11%

    23%

    33%

    People drinking or using drugs

    8%

    15%

    25%

    Rubbish or litter lying around

    10%

    20%

    31%

    Source: Scottish Household Survey 2003/2004
    Columns add to more than 100% since multiple responses were allowed.

    Table 4: Perceptions of Safety When at Home Alone at Night by Geographic Area, 2003/2004

    Remote Rural

    Accessible Rural

    Rest of Scotland

    Very safe

    91%

    83%

    73%

    Fairly safe

    8%

    15%

    23%

    A bit unsafe

    1%

    2%

    2%

    Not safe at all

    0%

    0%

    1%

    Don't know

    0%

    0%

    0%

    Total

    100%

    100%

    100%

    Source: Scottish Household Survey 2003/2004

    Table 4 shows that, relative to the rest of Scotland, people in rural Scotland perceive it to be much safer at home alone at night.

    Table 5: Whether Gave Up Time to Help as an Organiser/volunteer in the Past 12 Months by Geographic Area, 2003/2004

    Remote Rural

    Accessible Rural

    Rest of Scotland

    Yes

    35%

    30%

    22%

    No

    65%

    70%

    78%

    Total

    100%

    100%

    100%

    Source: Scottish Household Survey 2003/2004

    Table 5 shows that people in rural Scotland are more likely to give up their time doing volunteering than those in the rest of Scotland.

    Physical Environment

    Table 6: Percentage of population living in proximity to landfill sites (2001) and site on the European Pollution Emissions Register ( EPER) (2002) by Geographic Area

    Remote Rural

    Accessible Rural

    Rest of Scotland

    Proximity to Landfill sites

    % population within 0-500 metres

    0%

    1%

    0%

    % population within 500-1000

    2%

    3%

    2%

    % population within 1000-2000

    6%

    11%

    11%

    % population over 2000 metres

    91%

    85%

    87%

    Proximity to EPER sites

    % population within 0-500 metres

    0%

    1%

    3%

    % population within 500-1000 metres

    1%

    3%

    10%

    % population within 1000-2000 metres

    3%

    8%

    24%

    % population over 2000 metres

    95%

    89%

    63%

    Source: Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics 2005

    Table 6 shows that the percentage of population living within 2000 metres of a landfill site is the same for accessible rural Scotland as it is for the rest of Scotland. The percentage of population living within 2000 metres of a site on the European Pollution Emissions Register is higher in the rest of Scotland than in rural areas.

    Services and Lifestyle

    Access to Services

    Fig 4 Within 15 mins drive time of service by geographic location, 2003 image

    Source: Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004

    Figure 4 shows that nearly 20% of people in remote rural Scotland are more than
    15 minutes' drive away from their GP. Access to petrol stations is a particular problem in remote rural areas.

    Convenience of Services

    Figure 5: % Finding Services Very or Fairly Convenient by Geographic Area, 2003/2004 image

    Source: Scottish Household Survey 2003/2004

    Figure 5 shows that a lower percentage of people in remote rural areas find public transport, outpatients and chemists very or fairly convenient compared to other areas in Scotland.

    Internet and Recycling

    Table 7: Households with Home Internet Access by Geographic Area, 2003/2004

    Remote Rural

    Accessible Rural

    Rest of Scotland

    Yes

    49%

    52%

    41%

    No

    51%

    48%

    59%

    Total

    100%

    100%

    100%

    Source: Scottish Household Survey 2003/2004

    Table 7 shows that households in rural Scotland are more likely to have home internet access than those in the rest of Scotland.

    Table 8: Households recycling items in the past month by Geographic Area, 2003/2004

    Remote Rural

    Accessible Rural

    Rest of Scotland

    Glass bottles

    52%

    49%

    35%

    Plastic

    15%

    18%

    16%

    Metal cans

    18%

    22%

    17%

    Newspapers/magazine/

    paper/cardboard

    38%

    52%

    50%

    One or more of these items

    62%

    65%

    58%

    Source: Scottish Household Survey 2003/2004
    Columns add to more than 100% since multiple responses were allowed.

    Table 8 shows that rural households are more likely to recycle glass bottles than households in other areas. Households in remote rural areas are less likely to recycle newspapers and magazines.

    Travel patterns

    Table 9: Cars Normally Available for Private Use by Geographic Area, 2003/2004

    Remote Rural

    Accessible Rural

    Rest of Scotland

    None

    17%

    17%

    37%

    One

    49%

    44%

    44%

    Two

    28%

    33%

    17%

    Three or more

    6%

    6%

    3%

    Total

    100%

    100%

    100%

    Source: Scottish Household Survey 2003/2004

    Table 9 shows that rural households have greater access to cars than those in the rest of Scotland.

    Table 10: How Adults Usually Travel to Work/Education by Geographic Area, 2003/2004

    Remote Rural

    Accessible Rural

    Rest of Scotland

    Walking

    14%

    7%

    16%

    Driver car/van

    70%

    72%

    52%

    Passenger car/van

    6%

    8%

    9%

    Bicycle

    1%

    1%

    2%

    Bus (ordinary, school or works)

    5%

    8%

    15%

    Rail

    0%

    2%

    4%

    Other

    4%

    2%

    2%

    Total

    100%

    100%

    100%

    Source: Scottish Household Survey 2003/2004
    (based on adults in work or education, excluding those who work from home)

    Table 10 shows that rural people are more likely to drive to work/education than people in the rest of Scotland.

    Travel Patterns

    Table 11: How School Children Normally Travel to School by Geographic Area, 2003/2004

    Remote Rural

    Accessible Rural

    Rest of Scotland

    Walking

    28%

    30%

    57%

    Driver/passenger car/van

    17%

    22%

    22%

    Bicycle

    2%

    1%

    1%

    Bus (ordinary or school)

    51%

    44%

    18%

    Rail

    0%

    1%

    0%

    Other

    2%

    3%

    1%

    Total

    100%

    100%

    100%

    Source: Scottish Household Survey 2003/2004

    Table 11 shows that children in rural areas are more likely to travel to school by bus than those in the rest of Scotland.

    Fig 6 % of working population living and working in area by geographic area 2001 image

    Source: General Registers for Scotland, 2001 Census

    Figure 6 gives an indication of the relationship between where people live and where they commute to work. For those living in remote rural areas, the majority also work in remote rural areas (68%). For those living in accessible rural areas, 46% work in accessible rural areas but 52% commute to work in the rest of Scotland. For those living in the rest of Scotland, 91% also work in the rest of Scotland. Therefore, commuting out of area of residence is more common in accessible rural areas.

    Fig 7 Total expenditure on fuel for cars per month by geographic area, 2003/04 image

    Source: Scottish Household Survey 2003/2004

    Figure 7 shows that residents in rural Scotland are more likely than those in the rest of Scotland to spend over £100 per month on fuel for their cars. This is particularly true in accessible rural Scotland with 30% of respondents indicating that they spend over £100 per month on fuel, 25% of respondents in remote rural Scotland spend over £100 a month, with only 18% of respondents in the rest of Scotland indicating that they spent over £100 per month.

    Childcare and Education

    Table 12: Availability of Childminders and Childcare Centres: % of places and services by Geographic Area, 2005

    Remote Rural

    Accessible Rural

    Rest of Scotland

    Places available by type

    % of all places that are with childminders

    14%

    20%

    14%

    % of all places that are at childcare centres

    86%

    80%

    86%

    Services available by type

    % services that are childminders

    43%

    57%

    55%

    % services that are childcare centres

    57%

    43%

    45%

    Source: Scottish Executive, Pre-School and Childcare Statistics, 2005

    Table 12 shows that, of all places available for pre-school childcare, accessible rural areas have a higher percentage of places provided through childminders. Table 12 also shows that, of all services available for pre-school childcare, remote rural areas have a higher percentage of their pre-school and childcare services available at centres than childminders, compared to other areas.

    Table 13: Qualifications Held by Geographic Area, 2003/2004

    Remote Rural

    Accessible Rural

    Rest of Scotland

    No qualifications

    21%

    17%

    22%

    ' O' Grade or equivalent

    66%

    67%

    63%

    Highers or equivalent

    54%

    58%

    53%

    First or higher degree

    16%

    18%

    15%

    Professional qualifications

    18%

    18%

    13%

    Source: Scottish Household Survey 2003/2004
    Columns add to more than 100% since multiple responses were allowed.

    Table 13 shows that a higher percentage of adults in rural areas hold 'O' grade or equivalent qualifications and hold professional qualifications than in the rest of Scotland.

    Table 14: Destination of school leavers from public funded secondary schools by Geographic Area, 2003/2004

    Remote Rural

    Accessible Rural

    Rest of Scotland

    Full-time Higher Education

    32%

    32%

    29%

    Full-time Further Education

    17%

    20%

    21%

    Training

    2%

    4%

    5%

    Employment

    36%

    25%

    24%

    Unemployed, actively seeking employment

    7%

    12%

    14%

    Unemployed, not actively seeking employment

    3%

    3%

    3%

    Unknown Destination

    3%

    4%

    4%

    Total

    100%

    100%

    100%

    Source: Scottish Executive, Destinations of Leavers from Scottish Schools, 2003/2004

    Table 14 shows that rural areas have higher percentages of school leavers going into full time higher education. Remote rural areas have the highest percentage of school leavers going into employment.

    Table 15: Average tariff score of S4 pupils and % registered for school meals by Geographic Area, 2003/2004

    Number of Pupils

    Average Tariff Score

    % Registered for school meals

    Remote Rural

    2,142

    189

    92%

    Accessible Rural

    5,148

    175

    88%

    Rest of Scotland

    53,136

    169

    84%

    Source: Scottish Executive, SQA Attainment and School Leaver Qualifications in Scotland, 2003/2004

    Table 15 shows that pupils in senior 4 at schools in rural areas have higher average tariff scores. Table 15 also shows that a higher percentage of pupils in senior 4 are registered for school meals in rural areas than in the rest of Scotland.

    Health

    Table 16: Whether Respondent Smokes by Geographic Area 2003/04

    Remote Rural

    Accessible Rural

    Rest of Scotland

    Yes

    23%

    23%

    28%

    No

    77%

    77%

    72%

    Total

    100%

    100%

    100%

    Source: Scottish Household Survey 2003/2004

    Table 16 shows that those in rural areas are less likely to smoke than those in the rest of Scotland.

    Table 17: Rate of hospital admissions (emergency and cancer) and % of population prescribed drugs for anxiety, depression or psychosis

    Remote Rural

    Accessible Rural

    Rest of Scotland

    Emergency admissions (both sexes, aged 65 and over) Rate per 100,000 population aged 65 and over (2003)

    22,253

    21,268

    23,418

    Cancer Admissions (both sexes, all ages) Rate per 100,000 population (2003)

    2,403

    2,378

    2,585

    Percentage of population prescribed drugs for anxiety, depression or psychosis (2002)

    6%

    7%

    8%

    Source: Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics 2005

    Table 17 shows the rate of emergency admissions for population aged over 65 years. Rest of Scotland has the highest rate but the rate in remote rural areas is similar.
    For cancer admissions, again, rest of Scotland has the highest rate but the rate in remote rural areas is similar. For prescribed drugs for anxiety, depression or psychosis, rest of Scotland again has the highest percentage but the percentages are similar across geographic areas.

    Housing

    Fig 8 Housing tenure by geographic area, 2003/04 image

    Source: Scottish Household Survey 2003/2004

    Figure 8 shows that more people own their homes in rural Scotland (either owning outright or buying with the help of a loan/mortgage) than in the rest of Scotland. Renting from local authorities/Scottish Homes is less common in rural Scotland relative to the rest of Scotland.

    Fig 9 Property type by georgraphic area, 2003/04 image

    Source: Scottish Household Survey 2003/2004

    Figure 9 shows that the houses in rural Scotland tend to be detached or semi-detached unlike the rest of Scotland where flats/maisonettes are more common.

    Table 18: Use of housing stock by Geographic Area, 2001

    Occupied Household Space

    Unoccupied Household Space

    Unoccupied Space, Second Residence/ Holiday Accommodation

    Unoccupied Space, Vacant Household Space

    Remote Rural

    84%

    16%

    11%

    5%

    Accessible Rural

    94%

    6%

    2%

    4%

    Rest of Scotland

    96%

    4%

    0%

    4%

    Source: General Registers for Scotland, Census 2001

    Table 18 shows the percentage of the housing stock that is occupied and unoccupied by geographic area. Remote rural areas have the lowest percentage of occupied household space with 83% occupied. Of the 16% unoccupied space in remote rural areas, 11% is unoccupied as a result of second residence/holiday accommodation and 5% is vacant. The percentage of housing stock that is accounted for by second homes is highest in remote rural areas.

    Table 19: House sales (Total number and Average Prices), 2004

    Total number of House sales, 2004

    House Sales, Average price, 2004

    House Sales Median Price, 2004

    Remote Rural

    5,973

    £90,000

    £120,599

    Accessible Rural

    18,170

    £105,000

    £130,521

    Rest of Scotland

    115,533

    £78,500

    £105,422

    Source: Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics 2005

    Table 19 shows total house sales by geographic area and the average house price for those sales. Average house prices are highest in accessible rural areas. It is important to note that these prices are based only on prices for properties sold and not values of all properties in the area.

    Economy and Enterprise

    Industry significance

    Fig 10 Industry significance by geographic aera, 2004 image

    Source: Scottish Executive, ONS ( IDBR)

    Figure 10 shows that the primary industries (agriculture, forestry, fishing and energy) are the most significant in remote rural areas (in terms of number of employees) followed by wholesale, retail and repairs. Manufacturing is the most important sector in accessible rural areas. Financial services is the most important industry in the rest of Scotland but there are also financial services in rural areas.

    Economic activity

    Fig 11 Economic activity of people of working age by geographic area 2004 image

    Source: Annual Scottish Labour Force Survey, 2004

    Figure 11 shows that inactivity rates (those neither in employment nor unemployed) are lower in rural Scotland than in the rest of Scotland. The main reasons for being economically inactive are long term sickness or disability, being a student and looking after family. The employment rate (the number of people employed as a percentage of the total population of working age) is higher in rural Scotland than in the rest of Scotland. The unemployment rate (the number of people unemployed as a percentage of the number of economically active) is lowest in rural areas. Of those employed, self-employment is higher in rural Scotland than in the rest of Scotland.

    Income

    Fig 12 Annual net income of highest income householder and partner by geographic area, 2003/04 image

    Source: Scottish Household Survey 2003

    Figure 12 presents net household income figures (for head of household and partner) by geographic area. The income figures include income from employment, benefits and other sources (after taxation and other deductions). The figures indicate that, relative to other areas, there is a higher percentage of households in accessible rural areas with a net annual household income of over £20,000. Households in remote rural show a more similar profile to those in the rest of Scotland than to accessible rural areas.

    Table 20: Income and Employment Deprivation by Geographic Area, 2004

    Remote Rural

    Accessible Rural

    Rest of Scotland

    Number of income deprived

    28,799

    65,209

    663,206

    Number of employment deprived

    16,106

    41,163

    337,769

    % of total population that are income deprived

    10%

    9%

    16%

    % of working age population that are employment deprived

    9%

    9%

    15%

    Source: Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004

    Table 20 shows income deprivation by geographic area. The percentage of the total population that is income deprived is lower in rural areas than the rest of Scotland. The percentage of the working age population that are employment deprived are also lower in rural areas than the rest of Scotland.

    Income deprivation is comprised of 8 indicators including Income Support, Working Families Tax Credit, Job Seekers Allowance, Disability Tax Credits.

    Employment deprivation is comprised of 4 indicators that identify those people who want to work but due to unemployment, ill health or disability are excluded from the labour market. Indicators include Unemployment Claimant Count, Incapacity Benefits, Disablement Allowance and Compulsory New Deal Participants.

    Size of business

    Fig 13 Size of firm by geographic area, 2004 image

    Source: Scottish Executive, ONS ( IDBR)

    Figure 13 shows that small businesses (those with 0-49 employees) account for a particularly high percentage of businesses in remote rural areas (84%) but are also common in accessible rural areas (61%) of businesses. Large businesses (those with over 250 employees) are more common in the rest of Scotland.

    Enterprise Start Ups

    Table 21: Enterprise start-ups by geographic area, 2004

    Remote Rural

    Accessible Rural

    Rest of Scotland

    Number of registrations

    1,630

    3,965

    5,960

    % of all registrations

    14%

    34%

    52%

    Area population aged 16+

    227,317

    531,114

    3,331,515

    Start ups per 10,000 population

    72

    75

    18

    Start ups per 1,000 firms

    55

    74

    91

    Source: Scottish Executive, ONS ( IDBR)

    Table 21 shows that rural areas accounted for 48% of all new business registrations in 2004. The start up rates per head of population are higher in rural areas, suggesting that rural areas are entrepreneurial. The rates per 1,000 firms are lower in rural areas than in the rest of Scotland reflecting the smaller size of the business stock.

    Obstacles to success of business

    Fig 14 Greatest obstacle to success of business by geographic aera image

    Source: Annual Survey of Small Businesses in Scotland 2003

    Figure 14 shows that in remote rural areas, the greatest obstacle to success of a business is perceived to be regulation. In accessible rural areas, the greatest obstacle to success of a business is perceived to be the economy in general. Staffing is more likely to be identified as the greatest obstacle to success by businesses in remote rural areas.

    Health of Business

    Fig 15 Health of the business by geographic area, 2003 image

    Source: Annual Survey of Small Businesses in Scotland 2003

    Figure 15 shows business perceptions of the current health of their business.
    The percentages shown relate to the numbers responding to each category such as 'doing very well' and so on. 30% of businesses in remote rural areas say their business is 'doing very well' compared to 17% in the rest of Scotland. However, remote rural areas also had the highest percentage of businesses saying that they were 'not doing very well' (11%).

    Notes

    Background

    This is the second edition of 'Rural Scotland Key Facts' - a publication intended to be an easily accessible reference for statistics on rural Scotland. This 2005 version updates statistics from the 1st edition where new statistics have become available. Some new items have also been introduced.

    For hard copies of this publication or for further information on any of the tables/figures presented, please contact the Analytical Services Division of the Scottish Executive Environment and Rural Affairs Department. Telephone 0131 244 6143.

    Sources

    For tables/charts sourced from the Scottish Household Survey, the unweighted base numbers for the adult population are 2,613 for remote rural, 3,744 for accessible rural, and 24,462 for the rest of Scotland. There are occasional variations in base sizes for individual tables/figures. Further detail on the base numbers are available in 'Scotland's People: Results from the 2003 Scottish Household Survey'. The sample sizes are smallest for remote rural areas suggesting that there is less precision in the statistics for this area than for the rest of Scotland figures.

    Statistics sourced from Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics (including the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation) are based on data zones - the small area statistical geography in Scotland. Further information on Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics is available from www.sns.gov.uk

    For tables/charts sourced from the Inter Departmental Business Register, these figures include all businesses with at least one employee paid under PAYE or with a turnover above £55,000 (these account for about 95% of employment in Scotland).

    Urban Rural Classification

    Further information on the Scottish Executive urban rural classification 2003/04 is available on the Scottish Executive website: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/library5/rural/seurc-00.asp

    With the exception of data sourced from Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics, all data used has been assigned a Scottish Executive urban rural classification based on unit post codes. For statistics based on Scottish Neighbourhood Statistics, data zones are classified into the Scottish Executive urban rural classification using 'best fit' methods. Further information on this is available from the above publication.

    House Prices

    Residential property transactions are recorded by Registers of Scotland. For more information, see http://www.ros.gov.uk/pdfs/rsdguidancenotes.pdf . This analysis includes additional coding by the Land Valuation Information Unit at the University of Paisley and Communities Scotland.

    The median value includes all sales where the mean only includes sales between £20,000 and £1,000,000 inclusive. The total number relates to the median.