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Barriers to Modal Shift

DescriptionTo identify barriers that prevent car travellers changing to rail, bus, walk or cycle, or not making a journey. It has a literature review, modelling of travel choices, and a survey programme
Official Print Publication Date
Website Publication DateSeptember 16, 2003


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Derek Halden Consultancy

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Executive Summary
CHAPTER ONE Introduction
CHAPTER TWO Literature Review
Part 1 - Barriers to mode shift
Part 2 - Bridges to mode shift
Part 3 - Implications for transport modelling
CHAPTER THREE Analysis of Travel Choices
Review of Existing Analysis of Travel Choices
Mapping of Travel Choices
Comparison of modal split with accessibility ratios
CHAPTER FOUR Approach to Survey Work
Selection of Corridor for Case Study
Approach to Survey Work
Corridor Characteristics
CHAPTER FIVE Telephone Survey and Group Discussions
Telephone survey and repertory grid construction
Repertory Grid Analysis
Sampling for the Focus Groups
Focus groups
CHAPTER SIX Postal Survey
General information about the respondents
Travel patterns
Perceptions of travel
Improving public transport
Future Changes
Workplace Travel Planning
Lifestyle Choices and Travel
Additional Comments by Respondents
CHAPTER SEVEN Planning and Delivery Challenges
Delivery Challenges
Personal safety
Information and ticketing
Workplace travel planning
Modelling of Soft and Complementary Factors
Part 1 - Barriers to modal shift
Part 2 - Bridges to Modal Shift
Part 3 - Transport planning and transport administration
Appendix A Existing Surveys and Analysis in Corridors
Appendix B Repertory Grid Forms and Results
Appendix C Focus Group Findings
Appendix D Postal Questionnaire
Appendix E Postal Survey Analysis


Figure 1 Summary of Research Approach
Figure 2 Barriers for School Travel
Figure 3 Process of Travel Behaviour Change
Figure 4 A Possible Analytical Framework
Figure 5 Select Zones from SITM for Modal Shift Analysis
Figure 6 Mode Share for Car Commuting by Destination
Figure 7 Mode share for Car Travel for Non Commuting Trips
Figure 8 2001 Am Peak Accessibility to Jobs Ratio
Figure 9 2011 Am Peak Accessibility to Jobs Ratio
Figure 10 2001 Am Peak Accessibility to Population Ratio
Figure 11 2011 Am Peak Accessibility to Population Ratio
Figure 12 Comparison of Mode choice and Accessibility for Work Trips
Figure 13 Comparison of Mode Choice and Accessibility for Non-Work Trips
Figure 14 Estimated Modal Split in Corridor
Figure 15 Validation of Constructs
Figure 16 Importance of Constructs
Figure 17 Modal Split by Trip Purpose
Figure 18 Support for Future Changes
Figure 19 Factors Affecting Residential Location Choice
Figure 20 Support for Financing Public Transport with Road Charges
Figure 21 An Analytical Structure for Appraisal

Table 1 Barriers to Mode Shift
Table 2a Hard Factors to Encourage Mode Shift
Table 2b Soft Factors to Encourage Mode Shift
Table 2c Complementary Factors to Encourage Mode Shift
Table 3 Comparison of Social and Demographic Characteristics
Table 4 Summary of Corridor Characteristics
Table 5 Bipolar Constructs Used In The Repertory Grids
Table 6 % of Not Relevant Reponses
Table 7 % Likely to Use Public Transport if High Priorities Implemented
Table 8 Ranking of Rail Improvement Options by Respondents Likely to Shift Mode
Table 9 Ranking of Bus Improvement Options by Respondents Likely to Shift Mode
Table 10 Opportunities and Barriers to Implementing Improvements

The views expressed in this report are those of the researcher and
do not necessarily represent those of the Department or Scottish Ministers.

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