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Report of the MMR Expert Group

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Report of the MMR Expert Group

Annex 5 - References

1Taylor B et al. Autism and measles, mumps and rubella vaccine: no epidemiological evidence for a causal association. Lancet 353, 2026-2029 (1999).
Farrington CP Miller E & Taylor B. MMR and autism: further evidence against a causal association. Vaccine 19, 3632-3635 (2001).
Smeeth L et al. A case-control study of autism and mumps-measles-rubella vaccination using the general practice research database: design and methodology. BMC. Public Health 1, 2 (2001).
Smeeth L et al. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine and autism. Ecological studies cannot answer main question. BMJ 323, 163 (2001).
DeWilde S, Carey I M, Richards N, Hilton SR & Cook DG. Do children who become autistic consult more often after MMR vaccination? Br. J. Gen. Pract. 51, 226-227 (2001). mucosa to gluten challenge in autistic subjects. Lancet 2, 877-878 (1979).
Fombonne E & Chakrabarti S. No evidence for a new variant of MMR-induced autism. Pediatrics (2001).
Dales L, Hammer SJ & Smith NJ. Time trends in autism and in MMR immunization coverage in California. JAMA 285,1183-1185 (2001).
Kaye JA, Mar Melero-Montes M & Jick H. Mumps, measles, and rubella vaccine and the incidence of autism recorded by general practitioners: a time trend analysis. BMJ 322, 460-463 (2001).
2Medical Research Council. Report of the Strategy Development Group Subgroup on Research into Bowel Disorders and Autism. London, England, Medical Research Council. www.mrc.ac.uk/Autism-report.html (2000).
American Medical Association. Current scientific data do not support causal association
between autism and the MMR vaccine. American Medical Association.www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/article/1824-2080.html (2000).
Stratton K. Immunization safety review: measles-mumps rubella vaccine and autism. Institute of Medicine. 2001. Washington DC, National Academy Press. www.iom.edu/IOM/IOMHome.nsf/Pages/MMR+and+Autism (2001).
World Health Organization. Adverse Events following measles-mumps and rubella vaccines. www.who.int/vaccines-diseases/safety/infobank/mmr.html (2000).
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Irish Department of Health and Children. Irish Department of Health and Children. www.gov.ie/committees-01/c-health/rep-childhood/default.htm (2001).
3Report on inquiry into issues surrounding the alleged relationship between the combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccine and autism. 2001.
4Scottish Executive response to the Report on inquiry into issues surrounding the alleged relationship between the combined measles, mumps and rubella vaccine and autism. http://www.scotland.gov.uk
5Guidelines 2000: Scientific Advice And Policy Making. The Office of Science and Technology. July 2000. www.dti.gov.uk/ost/aboutost/guidelines.htm
6The MMR Discussion Pack. Health Education Board for Scotland. September 2001. ISBN 1-902030-26-5. http://www.hebs.scot.nhs.uk
7Rothman KJ and Greenland S. Causation and causal interference from Modern Epidemiology. 2nd Edn. 1998.
8MRC Review of Autism Research. December 2001. www.mrc.ac.uk
9Autistic Spectrum Disorders Needs Assessment Report. Public Health Institute for Scotland. December 2001. ISBN 1-904196-02. www.show.scot.nhs.uk/PHIS
10World Health Organization. ICD-10 Classification of mental and behavioural disorders: clinical description and diagnostic guidelines. WHO 1994.
11American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
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12Wing L, Gould J. Severe impairments of social interaction and associated abnormalities in Children: epidemiology and classification. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders.
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13Wing L. The definition and prevalence of autism: a review. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2 (2), 61-74 (1993).
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15Fombonne E. The epidemiology of autism: a review. Psychological Medicine. 29 (4), 769-786 (1999).
16Gillberg C, Wing L. Autism: not an extremely rare disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. June 1999 (6), 399-406 (1999).
17Powell JE, Edwards A, Edwards M, Pandit BS, Sungum-Paliwal SR, Whitehouse W. Changes in the incidence of childhood autism and other autistic spectrum disorders in preschool children from two areas of the West Midlands, UK. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology. 42 (9), 624-628 (2000).
18Baird et al. A screening instrument for Autism at 18 months of age: a six-year follow-up study. Journal American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 39 (6), 694-702 (2000).
19Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevalence of Autism in Brick Township, New Jersey 1998: Community Report. Atlanta, GA: Center for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000.
20Chakrabarti S, Fombonne E. Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children. Journal of the American Medical Association. (2000).
21Morris A, Aldulaimi D. New evidence for a viral pathogenic mechanism for new variant inflammatory bowel disease and development disorder? J. Clin. Pathol.: Mol. Pathol. 55, 0 (2002).
22Table taken from MRC presentation to the MMR Expert Group, January 2002. See http://www.show.scot.nhs.uk/mmrexpertgroup/.
23Bailey A et al. Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: evidence from a British twin study. Psychol. Med. 25, 63-77 (1995).
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25May M. Disturbing behaviour: neurotoxic effects in children. Environ. Health Perspect. 108, A262-A267 (2000).
26Wakefield AJ. et al. Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, nonspecific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children. Lancet 351, 637-641 (1998).
27Taylor B, Miller E, Lingam R, Andrews N, Simmons A, Stowe J. Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and bowel problems or developmental regression in children with autism: population study. BMJ. 324, 393-396 (2002).
28Peltola H. et al. No evidence for measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine-associated inflammatory bowel disease or autism in a 14-year prospective study. Lancet 351, 1327-1328 (1998).
29Uhlmann V, Martin CM, Sheils O, Pilkington L, Silva I, Killalea A, Murch SB,
Wakefield AJ , O'Leary JJ. Potential viral pathogenic mechanism for new variant inflammatory bowel disease. Clin J, Pathol, Mol Pathol, 55, 0-6 (2002).
30Akobeng AK, & Thomas AG. Inflammatory bowel disease, autism and the measles, mumps and rubella vaccine. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 28, 351-352 (1999).
Fombonne E, Chakrabarti S. No evidence for a new variant of measles-mumps-rubella-induced autism. Pediatrics 108, E58 (2001).
Horvath K, Papadimitriou JC, Rabsztyn A, Drachenberg C, Tildon JT. Gastrointestinal abnormalities in children with autistic disorder. J. Pediatr 135, 559-63 (1999).
Taylor B, Miller E, Lingam R, Andrews N, Simmons A, Stowe J. Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccination and bowel problems or developmental regression in children with autism: population study. BMJ 324, 393-396 (2002).
Wakefield AJ, Anthony A, Murch SH, Thomson M, Montgomery SM, Davies S, O'Leary JJ, Berelowitz M, Walker-Smith JA. Enterocolitis in children with developmental disorders. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 95, 2285-2295 (2000).
31Wing L. The Autistic Spectrum - A guide for parents and professionals. London: Constable and Co Ltd. 1996.
Jordan R. The nature and definition of Autism. Autistic Spectrum Disorders: An introductory handbook for practitioners. David Fulton Publishers Ltd: London 1999.
32Community Care: A Joint Future. The Report of the Joint Futures Group. http://www.scotland.gov.uk/health/ltc/Documents/jointresourcing.pdf
33Lapidus A. The changing epidemology of IBD. Acta. Gastroenterol. Belg. 2001; 64; 155-9.
34Sawczenko et al. Prospective survey of childhood IBD in the British isles. Lancet 2001; 357; 1093.
35Barton et al. Incidence of IBD in Scottish Children between 1968-83; Marginal fall in ulcerative colitis; three-fold increase in Crohn's disease. Gut 1989; 30; 618-22.
Armitage et al. Incidence of juvenile-onset Crohn's disease in Scotland. Lancet 1999; 353; 1496-7.
36Armitage et al. Increasing evidence of both juvenile-onset Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in Scotland. Eur. J. Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2001; 13; 1439-47.
37Ahmad T, Satsangi J, McGovern D, Bunce M, Jewell DP. The genetics of inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment. Pharmacol. Therap. 15, 731-738 (2001).
38Ogura Y, Bonen DK, Inohara N., Nicolae DL, Chen FF, Ramos R et al. A frameshift mutation in NOD2 associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease. Nature. 411, 603-606 (2001).
39Hugot J-P, Chamaillard M, Zonali H, Lesage S, Cezard J-P, Belaiche J et al. Association of NOD-2 leucine rich repeat variants with susceptibility to Crohn's disease. Nature 411, 599-603 (2001).
40Hampe J, Cuthbert A, Croucher P J et al. Association between insertion mutation in NOD2 gene and Crohn's disease in German and British populations. Lancet 357, 1925-1928 (2001).
41Wakefield AJ, Pittilo RM, Sim R, et al. Evidence of persistent measles virus infection in Crohn's disease. J. Med. Virol. 39, 345-353 (1993).
42Iizuka M, Chiba M, Yukawa M, Nakagomi T, Fukushima T, Watanabe S, Nakagomi O. Immunohistochemical analysis of the distribution of measles related antigen in the intestinal mucosa in inflammatory bowel disease. Gut 46, 163-169 (2000).
Afzal MA, Minor PD, Schild GC. Clinical safety issues of measles, mumps and rubella vaccines. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 78,199-204 (2000).
43Chadwick N, Bruce IJ, Schepelmann S, Pounder RE, Wakefield AJ. Measles virus RNA is not detected in inflammatory bowel disease using hybrid capture and reverse transcription followed by the polymerase chain reaction. J. Med. Virol. 55, 305-311 (1998).
44Ekbom A, Wakefield AJ, Zack M, Adami HO. Perinatal measles infection and subsequent Crohn's disease. Lancet 344: 508-510 (1994).
Ekbom A, Daszak P, Kraaz W, Wakefield AJ. Crohn's disease after in-utero measles virus exposure. Lancet 348, 515-517 (1996).
Ekbom A, Wakefield AJ, Zack M, Adami HO. Perinatal measles infection and subsequent Crohn's disease. Lancet 344, 508-510 (1994).
Thompson NP, Montgomery SM, Pounder RE, Wakefield AJ. Is measles vaccination a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease? Lancet 345, 1071-1074 (1995).
Thompson NP, Pounder RE, Wakefield AJ. Perinatal and childhood risk factors for inflammatory bowel disease: a case-control study. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology 7, 385-390 (1995).
45Nielsen LLW, Nielsen NM, Melbye M, Sodermann M, Jacobsen M, Aaby P. Exposure to measles in utero and Crohn's disease: Danish register study. BMJ 316, 196-197 (1998).
Davis RL, Kramarz P, Bohlke K, Benson P, Thompson RS, Mullooly J et al. Measles-mumps-rubella and other measles-containing vaccines do not increase the risk for inflammatory bowel disease: a case-control study from the Vaccine Safety Datalink project. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine 155, 354-359 (2001).
46Wakefield AJ et al. Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis and pervasive developmental disorder in children. Lancet 351, 637-641 (1998).
47Wakefield AJ et al. Enterocolitis in children with developmental disorders. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 95, 2285-2295 (2000).
48Wakefield AJ & Montgomery SM. Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine: through a glass darkly. Adverse Drug Reactions and Toxicological Reviews 19(4), 265-283 (2000).
49Arlett P, Bryan P. A response to "Measles, mumps and rubella vaccine: through a glass darkly". Adverse Drug Reactions and Toxicological Reviews 20(1), 37-45 (2001).
50Miller E, Waight P, Farrington CP, Andrews N, Stowe J, Taylor B. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura and MMR vaccine. Arch. Dis. Child. 84, 227-229 (2001).
51Miller CL. Severity of notified measles. BMJ 1, 1253 (1978).
52Miller CL. Deaths from measles in England and Wales, 1970-83. BMJ 290, 443-444 (1985).
53Miller C, Farrington CP, Harbert K. The epidemiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in England and Wales 1970-1989. International Journal of Epidemiology 21(5), 998-1006 (1992).
54Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. 6th Edn. 2001.
55Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Measles Outbreak - Netherlands, April 1999-January 2000. MMWR 49(14), 299-303 (2000).
56McBrien J, Glynn F, O'Donovan C et al. An outbreak of measles in Dublin in the year 2000. Irish Journal of Medical Science 169(4), 332 (2000).
57Galbraith NS, Young SEJ, Pusey JJ, Crombie DL, Sparks JP. Mumps surveillance in England and Wales 1962-81. Lancet 1, 91-94 (1984).
58Hall R, Richards H. Hearing loss due to mumps. Archives of Disease in Childhood 62, 189-191 (1987).
59Plotkin SA, Wharton M. Mumps vaccine. In: Plotkin SA, Orenstein WA, eds. Vaccines. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders, 267-292 (1999).
60Miller E, Cradock-Watson JE, Pollock TM. Consequences of confirmed maternal rubella at successive stages of pregnancy. Lancet 2, 781-784 (1982).
61Panagiotopoulos T, Antoniadou I, Valassi-Adam E. Increase in congenital rubella occurrence after immunisation in Greece: retrospective survey and systematic review (2001). BMJ 319, 1462-1467 (1999).
62Sir Kenneth Calman in "The Legacy of Jenner", the Foreword to the Immunisation against Infectious Disease 1996. ISBN 0-11-321815-X.
63A report on this survey was published in Eurosurveillance Vol. 6, No. 6 June, 2001. See also
www.eurosurveillance.org or
www-nt.who.int/vaccines/globalsummary/Immunization/CountryProfileSelect.cfm
64http://www.show.scot.nhs.uk/isd/child-health/ch-immunisation/ch-immunisation.htm
65Evans M, Stoddart H, Condon L, Freeman E, Grizzell M, Mullen R. Parents' perspectives on the MMR immunisation: a focus group study. Br. J. Gen. Pract. 51, 904-910 (2001).
66Offit PA, Quarles J, Gerber MA, Hackett CJ, Marcuse EK, Kollman T, Gellin BG, Landry S. Addressing Parents' Concerns: Do Multiple Vaccines Overwhelm or Weaken the Infant's Immune System. 2002.
671. Measles, Japan, 1999-2001. IASR 22, 273-274 (2001). http://idsc.nih.go.jp/iasr/22/261/tpc261.html
2. Akeda H, Kohama M, Ashimine K, et al. An epidemic of measles, September 1998- October 1999 - Okinawa. IASR 20, 275 (1999). http://idsc.nih.go.jp/iasr/20/237/de237b.html
3. World Health Organization "Information on programme monitoring from the EUVAX report indicates in which countries coverage is assessed but does not provide information on uptake rates."
68Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Measles Outbreak - Netherlands, April 1999- January 2000. MMWR 49(14), 299-303 (2000).
69McBrien J, Glynn F, O'Donovan C et al. An outbreak of measles in Dublin in the year 2000. Irish Journal of Medical Science 169(4), 332 (2000).
70Begg N, Nicoll A. Myths in Medicine: Immunisation: Children taking antibiotics shouldn't be vaccinated. BMJ 1994; 309: 1073-1075.